Monographs Details: Croton palanostigma Klotzsch
Authority: Maguire, Bassett. 1965. The Botany of the Guayana Highland. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 12 (3): 1-285.
Family:Euphorbiaceae
Description:Distribution and Ecology - Distribution. A small tree to 15 m, upper Amazon River, and Amazonas, Venezuela. BRAZIL. Amazonas: Santa Isabel, Rio Negro, 10 Apr 1929, Tate 984 (fl. fr. N Y ) ; terra firma, near Palmares, Sao Paulo de Oliveuça, 11 Sep-26 Oct 1936, Krukoff 8562 (fl. NY; secondary forest, Estrada do Raiz, 6 Jan 1937, Ducke 383 [male] fl. NY). VENEZUELA. Amazonas: Cano Temi, below Yavita, alt. 130 m, 9 Jun 1959, Wurdack and Adderley 42890 (fl.). Bolivar: Along escarpment, 8 k m NW of Kavanayen, alt. 1220 m, 13 Nov 1944, Steyermark 60467 (NY); Uriman, Cano Anacapa, Rio Apacara, alt. 400-450 m, 15 Aug 1954, Bernardi 1422 (fl. N Y ) ; Rio Blanco, tributary of Rio Icabaru, 16 Apr 1957, Bernardi 6594 (fl. NY).

Discussion:C. benthamianus Müll. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 11(2) : 105. 1873, non Lanjouw. (Four syntypes quoted: "Habitat in provincia do Alto Amazonas, in silvis Japurensibus: Martius; ibidem in vicinia Manaos: Spruce 1112, 1114; et in Guayana anglica: Schomburgk n. 1008.") I am unable to separate C. benthamianus Miill. Arg. from C. palanostigma. The distinction given by Miiller is based on the sepals being adpressed to the capsules. There is, however, a transition between adpressed and patent sepals even on the same specimen. The lower part of the individual spikes generally carry both [female] and [male] flowers. The [female] flowers are often conspicuously pedicelled, in some instances as long as 12 mm (Bernardi 6594). C. palanostigma is closely related to C. gossipiifolius Vahl. of Trinidad, West Indies and northern Venezuela, from which it differs by lack of lobation of leaves. Both belong to sect. Cyclostigma of Müll. Arg. in D C . Prodr. and later renamed as Eutropia Müll. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras., characterized by the lack clear segregation of [female] and [male] flowers at the base. In Croizat's language C. palanostigma is an Amazonian, C. gossipiifolia a Caribbean element. Müll. Arg. cites C. palanostigma from British Guiana, based on Schomburgk 1008. This is an error. Klotzsch clearly states that Schomburgk's 1008 is from near the River Padawire, a tributary of the Amazon in Brazil, not British Guiana!
Distribution:Brazil South America| Venezuela South America|