Monographs Details: Strychnos subcordata Spruce ex Benth.
Authority: Krukoff, Boris A. 1965. Supplementary notes on the American species of Strychnos VII. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 12: 1-94.
Description:Distribution and Ecology - Brazil: Territory of Amapa: basin of Rio Oiapoque, Black 49—8180; Froes 25729. Amazonas: basin of Rio Negro (near Manaos), Ducke 2122; basin of Rio Solimoes, Froes 23695, 23900a.This is the first record of the species from the Territory of Amapa.Distribution: Brazil (basin of Rio Oiapoque in the Territory of Amapa; basins of the upper and lower Rio Negro, of Rio Tonantins, of Rio Iça and of Rio Solimoes in the State of Amazonas), and Colombia (basin of Rio Putumayo, Putumayo). Ducke (31: 34) refers to the collection from the basin of Rio Jurua but I have not seen this specimen. Doubtless occurs also in Peru and French Guiana.
Discussion:Our disposition of S. cordifolia and of S. petrophila are not questioned by Ducke but he questioned the labels of Glaziou 14096 (cotype of S. cordifolia) and Glaziou 9516 and 9945 (cotypes of S. petrophila) (31: 34). For my comments on this, see under S. guianensis.
Fruits and seeds of this species are very similar to those of S. guianensis but are smaller. For information on the position of this species in Ducke’s key, made on the basis of fruit characters, see under S. rondeletioides.
The type of S. depauperata (which we placed with S. subcordata) was reported by Jobert as one of the two species of Strychnos used by the Cauichanas (Rio Tonantins in the State of Amazonas, Brazil) in the preparation of curare, the other being S. Jobertiana (1: 300). The collector’s note on Museu Nacional 41653 (Schwacke s.n.; 1877; Manaos) reads: “Urary-uva . . . contendo o principio venenoso agita como o S. Castelnaei como a diferencia de ser menos efficaz (3. 67). According to the collector, the plant (Schultes 3687) is used in Kofán curare (Putumayo, Colombia) (7:9).
This species was studied chemically and pharmacologically by Marini-Bettolo, Bovet and their coworkers. For the alkaloid content, toxicity and curare activity of the total extracts, see (95: 1142, 1144; 108: 269). For rather extensive studies of the alkaloids of this species, see (101). In the summary the authors state that studies by the chromotographic methods demonstrated the presence of approximately 20 alkaloids. In the later paper (109: 141) the same authors list the following alkaloids isolated from this species: “Mavacurine, Desacetyldiaboline, Fluorocurarine (= C-curarine III), Fluorocurine, Erythrocurarine III, Guiacura-rine III and X, Fluorocordatine; fluorescent alkaloids I and II.”
The above referred to work was done on stem bark collected by Ducke on Estrada Aleixo, Manaos, Amazonas, Brazil in May 1953 (95: 1145; 101: 1165).
Distribution:Brazil South America
| Colombia South America
| Peru South America
| Suriname South America