Monographs Details: Strychnos panamensis Seem.
Authority: Krukoff, Boris A. 1965. Supplementary notes on the American species of Strychnos VII. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 12: 1-94.
Description:Distribution and Ecology - Mexico: Nyarit: McYaugh 19204 (Mich); Chiapas (near Acacoyagua), Matuda 16501 (F), 17626. Central America: Wullschlägel 1957 (W). Guatemala: Retalhuleu, Krukoff s.n. (July 1963) ; Suchitepequez (Chicacao, a few km from railroad station Nahualate, alt. 500 ft), Armando Guillen 201. El Salvador: Ahuachapán (vicin. of Ahuachapán), Standley and Padilla 2579. Nicaragua: Jinotega: Standley 9963 (F) (alt. 1400-1500 m), 10935 (1300-1500 m sierra east of Jinotega). Costa Rica: Puntarenas (near Palmar Norte), P Allen 6322 (F), 6634 (F); Limon (below Cairo, on Rio Reventazon), Standley and Valerio 48454 (US). Panama: Ivan M. Johnston 1299 (M, US) (San Jose Island, about 55 miles off Balboa), Bouché M-12 (US) (La Campana); s.n. (M) Vacamonte Bay. Canal Zone: P. Allen 4573. Stern et al. 35 (GH, Ml, John D. Dwyer 1475 (M), Duke 4220 (M), Killip 39995 (US), 40007 (US). Colombia: Magdalena (Toma-rrazon, Rio Hacha), Karsten s.n. [type coll, of S. hachensis (W) ]; Antioquia: Feddema 1845 (Mich); Santander (Rio Opon, alt. 200 m), Romero Castaneda 4898 (US).Distribution: Apparently confined to the Pacific coast of tropical Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua; abounds also in Costa Rica and Panama, in Northeastern Venezuela and in northern Colombia. The collections from Mexico are from Sinaloa, Nyarit, Tepic Territory, Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Chiapas; from Guatemala, from San Marcos, Quetzaltenango, Retalhuleu, Suchitepequez, Escuintla and Santa Rosa; from El Salvador, from Ahuachapán, Santa Ana and San Salvador; from Nicaragua, from Jinotega; from Costa Rica, from Guanacaste, Puntarenas, Alajuela and Limon; from Panama, from Code, Chiriqui, Canal Zone and Panama; from Colombia, from Magdalena, Santander and Antioquia; from Venezuela, from Zulia. Doubtless found also in Honduras.By far the most frequently collected species in Central America and one of the three species (the other two being S. tabascana and S. nigricans) which are found in Mexico. S. panamensis and S. Peckii are reaching elevations of 1400-1700 m in Central America, the other four species of the genus which occur in Central America seem to be confined to the lowlands. (S. chlorantha has been found at an elevation of 3,000 ft.)
Discussion:Slrychnos hachensis Karst. FI. Columb. 2:75. 1863.
Strychnos longissima Loesener, Repert. Sp. Nov. 9; 357. 1911.
Strychnos tcpicensis Standley, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 23:1142. 1924.
It was most satisfactory to have been able to examine another sheet of the type collection of S. hachensis sent to me through the kindness of the Conservator of the Herbarium, Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. This specimen consists of leaves, flowers and seeds, all of which unquestionably belong to the earlier published S. panamensis. Thus, it is obvious that our disposition of the name, S. hachensis, proved to be correct. It is a nomen confusum and I am now placing it in the synonymy under S. panamensis, as its flowers (also fruits!) are described on the basis of a specimen plainly referable to this species. The spines shown on the illustrations (Karst. FI. Colomb. 2: pl. 138, 1863) are obviously drawn from a species of Breviflorae to which species the leaves of the specimen deposited at the Leningrad Herbarium belong (6: 15). Seeds on this specimen belong to S. panamensis.
Local names: “Pataste de Mico,’ “Pataste de Caballo” (Chiapas, Mexico).
The first record of the species from Nyarit and Chiapas, Mexico; from Magdalena and Santander, Colombia, and from Nicaragua. The collection from Nicaragua is of interest as it is from an elevation of 1300-1500 m. (Steyermark 37412 from San Marcos, Guatemala was collected at an elevation of 1400-1700 meters.)
In Ducke’s key made on the basis of fruit characters, it should be placed together with eight other species of Longiflorae. For details see under S. Blackii. Fruits and seeds are very similar to those of S. tomentosa but the fruit pedicels are more slender, the shells are somewhat thinner, whereas the seeds are larger.
Maximino Martinez (Plantas utiles de la Flora Mexicana, p. 509. 1959) gives the following interesting information on this plant: “S. panamensis, de Sinaloa y Nayarit a Guerrero y Oaxaca, que se usa como S. tabascana, para matar perros y coyotes, moliendo la semilla y mezclándola con carne.” The pulp of fruits is sweet, with pleasant odor and it is often consumed by men and animals.
This species was recently located by the writer in two localities in Guatemala, in the Dept, of Retalhuleu and in the Dept, of Suchitepequez (in a patch of virgin forest). Extensive material (root bark and stem bark from the upper, medium and lower part of the bush-rope, as well as fruit shells and seeds) was collected in the second locality from a single mature vine of about 110 ft. long and 4 inches in diameter and sent for chemical studies to Prof. G. B. Marini-Bettolo (Rome). This material is backed up by herbarium specimens (Armando Guillen 201).
Distribution:Mexico North America
| Guatemala Central America
| El Salvador Central America
| Nicaragua Central America
| Costa Rica South America
| Panama Central America
| Venezuela South America
| Colombia South America