Monographs Details: Strychnos trinervis (Vell.) Mart.
Authority: Krukoff, Boris A. 1965. Supplementary notes on the American species of Strychnos VII. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 12: 1-94.
Description:Distribution and Ecology - Brazil: Minas Gerais, Mendes Magalhães 18915. São Paulo Ducke 2330. Santa Catarina: Reitz 1841 (US); Reitz & Klein 3488, 3969, 7080 (US), 7374 (US); L. B. Smith, Klein & Gevieski 7616. Bolivia: Santa Cruz (cerro de Amboró, Sara, alt, 1000 m), Steinbach 3009 (Herb. Inst. Mig. Lillo 58872) (GH).This is the first record of the species from Bolivia.Distribution: Brazil (Paraiba, Pernambuco, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Parana and Santa Catarina) and Bolivia (Santa Cruz). Doubtless occurs also in the State of Alagoas, Sergipe, Goias and Matto Grosso in Brazil.
Discussion:Of the South Brazilian species, according to Ducke, this bush-rope attains the largest dimensions (up to 3.5 inches in diam.) (31: 11).
Mature fruits and seeds of this species are now known and were described by Ducke (31: 22, 55). In this description he corrected two previous errors which he made in connection with the description of fruits of this species and of S. Torresiana. For information on its position in Ducke’s key made on the basis of fruit characters, see under S. Blackii.
In our paper (4:343) we cite 12 specimens of S. trinervis, from Espirito Santo under provisional collectors’ numbers (“OVB-3”, etc.). In their paper (35: 9), Luiz Emygdio de Millo Filho and João de Souza Campos (two of the collectors) have given also the numbers of these specimens under which they are deposited with Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, and on a map facing page 16, they also indicated the precise localities of collection of these twelve specimens. The same two persons have tested the crude extracts of six species of Strychnos, which occur in the State of Rio de Janeiro, on the curare-like action and they give the following information on their tests (36: 8): "Das Strychnos, a S. trinervis mostra a maior atividade curarizante dentre as que foram estudadas, reunindo seus extratos as propiedades de intensidade e ação tipica. Verificaram os autores diferenças na atividade da S. trinervis, que se revelou mais ativa quando colhida na mata do que na capoeira. As amostras mais ativas foram colecionadas pelos autores nas matas da Gavea. Das outras espécies S. Gardneri, S. parvifolia, S. rubiginosa, S. brasiliensis e possivelmente S. albifiora possuem reduzida atividade.” It is to be noted that the botanical identity of plants cited by the experimenters on the basis of our identifications as S. rubiginosa and S. albifiora, is still in doubt (see under these two species). No details of these tests, including the part of plant from which the extracts were prepared, the test-animal, etc., are given.
This species was studied chemically and pharmacologically by Marini-Bettolo, Bovet and their coworkers. For the alkaloid content, toxicity and curare activity of the total extracts, see (94: 856; also 95: 1142, 1144). For rather extensive studies of the alkaloids of this species, see (94). In the summary the authors state: “Chromatographic study of the alkaloids of S. trinervis made it possible to establish the presence of 23 alkaloids and to identify the C-calebassine ( = Toxiferine II = C-strychnotoxine I), C-curarine ( = C-curarine I), C-fluorocurarine ( = C-curarine III) and C-fluorocurinine, the H and K ( = C-dihydrotoxiferine) alkaloids of the toxipherine group and the J alkaloid. The last three of these have not hitherto been discovered in plants.”
In a later paper (108: 268) Marini-Bettolo lists the following alkaloids of S. trinervis which were identified: “Calebassine, Curarine, alkaloids H, I, K, Fluorocurinine, Fluorocurarine.”
The above referred to work was done on stem bark collected by Ducke near Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, in July 1952 as well as on the material collected by L. E. de Mello Filho near Grajau, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in Sept. 1953 (94- 862; 95: 1145).
Marini-Bettolo refers to tests presumably of crude extracts of this species [Brazil, Campos and Kuhlman, O. Hosp. (Rio de Janeiro), 21. 55 (1942)], but I have not seen this reference.
In the 19th century, (largely in the eighties), at the peak of interest in curare in Europe, Jobert, Couty and de Lacerda, also Schwacke, experimented with crude extracts of certain species of Strychnos.
Jobert experimented with extracts of S. trinervis ( = S. trrplincrvia), S. Gardneri and S. rubiginosa, also with extracts of S. hirsuta and S. nigricans and found these with curare activity (112; 113). For various reasons, I consider his identification of the last two species as doubtful.
Couty and de Lacerda described tests of extracts of S. trinervis ( = S. triplinervia) and S. Gardneri on animals and found these with curare activity (114-117).
Schwacke experimented with extracts of S. Castelnaeana and S. hirsuta (118), but for various reasons I consider his identification of S. hirsuta as doubtful.
Distribution:Brazil South America
| Bolivia South America