Monographs Details: Fissidens flaccidus Mitt.
Authority: Pursell, Ronald A. 2007. Fissidentaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 101 (Published by NYBG Press)
Synonyms:Fissidens mollis Mitt., Fissidens macrophyllus Mitt., Fissidens uncinatus Angst, Conomitrium bryodictyon Besch., Fissidens flexifrons Besch., Conomitrium flexifrons Besch., Conomitrium palmatulum Besch., Fissidens catumbensis Broth., Fissidens schwackeanus Broth., Fissidens megacistis Pursell
Description:Species Description - Plants pale to sordid dark green. Stems monomorphic, unbranched and branched, 3-15 mm [1.5 cm] long x 2-5 mm wide; rhizoids basal and axillary, smooth, reddish; axillary hyaline nodules absent; epidermis and cortical cells ± same size, thin-walled, hyaline, epidermis bulging; axillary, stalked, multicellular, clavate gemmae often present; central strand present or absent. Leaves crispate when dry, as many as 20 pairs, lanceolate to narrowly oblong, 1.4-5.5 mm long x 0.3-0.8 mm wide, acute to obtuse and apiculate; margin entire, sometimes serrulate at apex, limbate on all laminae, limbidium confluent at apex, limbidial cells bi- tri- and quadristratose; costa percurrent or ending as many as 18 cells below apex, variable in leaves of same plant, narrowed distally, bryoides type; dorsal lamina narrowed proximally, ending at insertion or infrequently slightly decurrent; vaginant laminae 1/2-2/3 leaf length, acute, equal; laminal cells distinct, eguttulate, thin-walled, smooth, greatly shrunken when dry, mostly oblong-pentagonal or oblong-hexagonal, (18-) 32-45 (-70) pun long x (11-) 16-25 (-32) pun wide, juxtacostal cells in proximal parts of vaginant laminae large, oblong, pellucid. Monoicous (rhizautoicous); perigonial and perichaetial stems ± of equal length, both perigonia and perichaetia terminal. Sporophytes 1-2 per perichaetium, reddish; seta, smooth, 4-8.5 mm long; theca exserted, erect, radially symmetric, 0.70.9 mm long, stomatose, exothecial cells quadrate to oblong, collenchymatous; peristome scariosus type; operculum conic, long-rostrate, 0.8 mm long. Spores smooth, 16-22 pun diam. Calyptra cucullate, smooth 0.9 mm long.

Discussion:Synonyms from outside the area of this study (Bruggeman-Nannenga, 1997; Pursell, 1997a): Fissidens en-sifolius P. de la Varde, Fissidens maceratus Mitt., and Fissidens splachnobryoides Broth.

Fissidens flaccidus is distinguished by its unusually long leaves, strong limbidium, confluent at the leaf apex, and large, smooth, thin-walled laminal cells that shrink greatly on drying. Fissidens dissitifolius is similar, but has smaller laminal cells and a limbidium that ceases several cells below the leaf apex. Also, the leaves of F. flaccidus are usually much longer than the lanceolate leaves of F. dissitifolius. In both species the length of the costa varies from percurrent to ending far below the apex (17-18 cells), often in leaves of the same plant. Fissidens palmatus, which can be confused with F. flaccidus, has broader and shorter leaves and a unistratose, weak limbidium. Fissidens lindbergii can be distinguished by its mammillose laminal cells.

Distribution and Ecology: Mexico (Chiapas, Guerrero, Jalisco, Nayarit, Puebla, San Luís Potosí, Tamaulipas, Veracruz); Central America (Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama); West Indies (Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Vincent); South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Tobago, Trinidad, Venezuela); on moist soil, rotting wood, tree trunks, rocks and boulders (including limestone), frequent along streams and waterfalls; sea level-3360 m. The species also occurs in Africa, New Guinea, and Australia.

Distribution:Pernambuco Brazil South America| Cundinamarca Colombia South America| Valle del Cauca Colombia South America| Alajuela Costa Rica Central America| Distrito Nacional Dominican Republic South America| El Seibo Dominican Republic South America| Esmeraldas Ecuador South America| Saint Andrew Jamaica South America| Dominica South America| Saint Mary Jamaica South America| Guadeloupe South America| Martinique South America| Saint Thomas Jamaica South America| Saint Lucia South America| Saint Kitts Saint Kitts and Nevis South America| Chiapas Mexico North America| Guerrero Mexico North America| Jalisco Mexico North America| Nayarit Mexico North America| Puebla Mexico North America| San Luis Potosí Mexico North America| Tamaulipas Mexico North America| Veracruz Mexico North America| Izabal Guatemala Central America| Retalhuleu Guatemala Central America| Cayo Belize Central America| Toledo Belize Central America| Atlántida Honduras Central America| Yoro Honduras Central America| Rivas Nicaragua Central America| Cartago Costa Rica Central America| Guanacaste Costa Rica Central America| Limón Costa Rica Central America| Puntarenas Costa Rica Central America| San José Costa Rica Central America| Bocas del Toro Panamá Central America| Chiriquí Panamá Central America| Colón Panama Central America| Darién Panamá Central America| Panamá Panama Central America| Veraguas Panama Central America| Cienfuegos Cuba South America| Guantánamo Cuba South America| La Habana Cuba South America| Piñar del Río Cuba South America| Sancti Spíritus Cuba South America| Santiago de Cuba Cuba South America| Villa Clara Cuba South America| Portland Jamaica South America| Artibonite Haiti South America| Nord Haiti South America| Barahona Dominican Republic South America| Dajabón Dominican Republic South America| Sánchez Ramírez Dominican Republic South America| San Cristóbal Dominican Republic South America| Puerto Rico South America| Saint Vincent and the Grenadines South America| Antioquia Colombia South America| Caldas Colombia South America| Caquetá Colombia South America| Cauca Colombia South America| Chocó Colombia South America| Magdalena Colombia South America| Meta Colombia South America| Nariño Colombia South America| Risaralda Colombia South America| Tolima Colombia South America| Vaupés Colombia South America| Falcón Venezuela South America| Guárico Venezuela South America| Lara Venezuela South America| Miranda Venezuela South America| Sucre Venezuela South America| Zulia Venezuela South America| Trinidad and Tobago South America| Imbabura Ecuador South America| Los Ríos Ecuador South America| Morona-Santiago Ecuador South America| Napo Ecuador South America| Pastaza Ecuador South America| Pichincha Ecuador South America| Tungurahua Ecuador South America| Huánuco Peru South America| Loreto Peru South America| Acre Brazil South America| Amazonas Brazil South America| Distrito Federal Brazil South America| Goiás Brazil South America| Minas Gerais Brazil South America| Paraná Brazil South America| Pernambuco Brazil South America| Rondônia Brazil South America| São Paulo Brazil South America| Cochabamba Bolivia South America| La Paz Bolivia South America| Santa Cruz Bolivia South America| Cordillera Paraguay South America| Salta Argentina South America| Chile South America| Trinidad and Tobago South America|