Monographs Details: Fissidens zollingeri Mont.
Authority: Pursell, Ronald A. 2007. Fissidentaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 101 (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Fissidentaceae
Synonyms:Fissidens kegelianus Müll.Hal., Fissidens kegelii Müll.Hal. & Kindb., Fissidens pseudobryoides Schlieph., Fissidens clavipes Sull., Fissidens conostegus Müll.Hal., Fissidens monandrus Mitt., Conomitrium caripense Hampe & Müll.Hal., Fissidens caripensis (Hampe & Müll.Hal.) Paris, Fissidens trinitensis Hampe, Fissidens balansaeanus Besch., Fissidens balansae Besch. ex Kindb., Fissidens balansaeanus var. limosus Besch., Conomitrium subpalmatum (Müll.Hal.) A.Jaeger, Fissidens subpalmatus Müll.Hal., Fissidens evadiinervis Paris, Fissidens stenocarpus Müll.Hal., Fissidens guarapiensis Besch., Fissidens crassicollis Besch., Fissidens flexifrons Besch., Fissidens gracilis (Bach.Pyl.) Brid., Fissidens tijucae Broth., Fissidens acutissimus Paris & Broth., Fissidens mararyensis Broth., Fissidens jujuiensis Broth.
Description:Species Description - Plants usually light green. Stems monomorphic, unbranched and branched, 5.5 mm long x 3.0 mm wide; rhizoids, basal and axillary, smooth, reddish; axillary hyaline nodules present; epidermis and outer tier of cortical cells small, incrassate, pigmented; inner cortical cells larger, thin-walled; central strand present or absent; axillary, stalked, multicellular, clavate gemmae sometimes present. Leaves ± crispate when dry, usually loosely imbricate, often palmately arranged, as many as 12 pairs, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, rarely linear-lanceolate, acute or infrequently obtuse, to 2.5 mm long x 0.5 mm wide; margin entire, serrulate at apex, limbate distinct on all laminae, confluent at apex or ending slightly below, limbidial cells uni- and bistratose; costa percurrent to short-excurrent, bry-oides type; dorsal lamina narrowed to insertion, not decurrent; vaginant laminae ± 1/2 leaf length, acute, equal; laminal cells distinct, eguttulate, firm-walled, smooth, slightly bulging, irregularly hexagonal, 6.5-18 µm long, patches of juxtacostal cells in proximal parts of vaginant laminae oblong, thin-walled, pellucid, much larger, to 90 µm long x 50 µm wide. Monoicous (rhizautoicous, synoicous); perigonial terminal on stems usually shorter than perichaetial stems; perichaetia terminal on stems; antheridia and archegonia in same perichaetia. Sporophytes 1-2 per perichaetium, yellow, darkening with age; seta smooth, 1.5-7.5 mm long; theca exserted, usually erect, radially symmetric, 0.5-0.8 mm long, stomatose, exothecial cells quadrate to oblong, collenchymatous; peristome scariosus type; operculum conic, long-rostrate, to 0.8 mm long. Spores finely papillose, 10-13 µm diam. Calyptra cucullate, smooth, 0.6 mm long.

Discussion:Synonyms from outside the area of this study (Brugge-man-Nannenga, 1997; Iwatsuki & Suzuki, 1982): Fissidens bengalense Hampe, Fissidens brachy-caulon Broth, in Mildbr., Fissidens herpetineuron Broth. & P. de la Varde, Fissidens macrophylla Welw. & Duby (non Fissidens macrophylla Mitt.), Fissidens obsoletidens Müll. Hal., Fissidens platy-bryoides Müll. Hal., Fissidens tenuisetus Cardot, Fissidens vogelianus Mitt., and Fissidens xiphioides M. Fleisch.

Fissidens zollingeri is a widely distributed and common denizen of Neotropical lowlands. Typically, the plants are pale green with palmately arranged leaves. The species is characterized by a strong limbidium on all laminae, smooth laminal cells, and the large, oblong, thin-walled, pellucid cells in the proximal parts of the vaginant laminae. Fissidens zollingeri is closely related to F. angustifolius which differs essentially by its mammillose laminal cells.

Distribution and Ecology: Mexico (Chiapas, Jalisco, Nayarit, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán); Central America (Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama); West Indies (Antigua, Bahama Islands, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Les Saintes, Nevis, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Saba, St. Croix, St. Eustatius, St. John, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Thomas, St. Vincent, Tortola, Virgin Gorda); South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad, Venezuela); on soil, rotting wood, limestone outcrops, infrequently on tree bark and termite mounds; near sea level-3360 m. The species also occurs in the southern United States (Florida, Georgia, Louisiana), Asia, Australasia, Malesia, Oceania, and tropical Africa.

Distribution and Ecology: Mexico (Chiapas, Jalisco, Nayarit, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán); Central America (Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama); West Indies (Antigua, Bahama Islands, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Les Saintes, Nevis, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Saba, St. Croix, St. Eustatius, St. John, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Thomas, St. Vincent, Tortola, Virgin Gorda); South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad, Venezuela); on soil, rotting wood, limestone outcrops, infrequently on tree bark and termite mounds; near sea level-3360 m. The species also occurs in the southern United States (Florida, Georgia, Louisiana), Asia, Australasia, Malesia, Oceania, and tropical Africa.

Distribution:Pernambuco Brazil South America| La Altagracia Dominican Republic South America| Esmeraldas Ecuador South America| Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni French Guiana South America| Alto Paraná Paraguay South America| Wanica Suriname South America| Trinidad and Tobago South America| Barbados South America| New Providence Bahamas South America| Saint Croix Virgin Islands of the United States South America| Dominica South America| Saint John Virgin Islands of the United States South America| Sint Eustatius South America| Saint Thomas Virgin Islands of the United States South America| Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis South America| Guadeloupe South America| Chiapas Mexico North America| Jalisco Mexico North America| Nayarit Mexico North America| Quintana Roo Mexico North America| San Luis Potosí Mexico North America| Sinaloa Mexico North America| Tabasco Mexico North America| Tamaulipas Mexico North America| Veracruz Mexico North America| Yucatán Mexico North America| Alta Verapaz Guatemala Central America| Belize Belize Central America| Cayo Belize Central America| Orange Walk Belize Central America| Atlántida Honduras Central America| Comayagua Honduras Central America| Copán Honduras Central America| Olancho Honduras Central America| Yoro Honduras Central America| Chinandega Nicaragua Central America| Cartago Costa Rica Central America| Guanacaste Costa Rica Central America| Limón Costa Rica Central America| Puntarenas Costa Rica Central America| Bocas del Toro Panamá Central America| Coclé Panamá Central America| Colón Panama Central America| Darién Panamá Central America| Los Santos Panama Central America| Panamá Panama Central America| Cienfuegos Cuba South America| Isla de la Juventud Cuba South America| La Habana Cuba South America| Matanzas Cuba South America| Piñar del Río Cuba South America| Sancti Spíritus Cuba South America| Villa Clara Cuba South America| Jamaica South America| Nord Haiti South America| Nord-Ouest Haiti South America| Ouest Haiti South America| Distrito Nacional Dominican Republic South America| El Seibo Dominican Republic South America| La Vega Dominican Republic South America| Samaná Dominican Republic South America| Puerto Rico South America| Tortola Virgin Islands South America| Virgin Gorda Virgin Islands South America| Antigua and Barbuda South America| Pointe-à-Pitre Guadeloupe South America| Martinique South America| Antioquia Colombia South America| Caldas Colombia South America| Cauca Colombia South America| Chocó Colombia South America| La Guajira Colombia South America| Risaralda Colombia South America| Valle del Cauca Colombia South America| Aragua Venezuela South America| Bolívar Venezuela South America| Cojedes Venezuela South America| Falcón Venezuela South America| Lara Venezuela South America| Mérida Venezuela South America| Monagas Venezuela South America| Sucre Venezuela South America| Yaracuy Venezuela South America| Brokopondo Suriname South America| Commewijne Suriname South America| Sipaliwini Suriname South America| Cayenne French Guiana South America| Galápagos Islands Ecuador South America| Guayas Ecuador South America| Imbabura Ecuador South America| Napo Ecuador South America| Loreto Peru South America| Acre Brazil South America| Alagoas Brazil South America| Amazonas Brazil South America| Distrito Federal Brazil South America| Espirito Santo Brazil South America| Goiás Brazil South America| Mato Grosso Brazil South America| Minas Gerais Brazil South America| Pará Brazil South America| Paraíba Brazil South America| Paraná Brazil South America| Pernambuco Brazil South America| Rio de Janeiro Brazil South America| Rio Grande do Sul Brazil South America| Rondônia Brazil South America| Roraima Brazil South America| Santa Catarina Brazil South America| São Paulo Brazil South America| Beni Bolivia South America| La Paz Bolivia South America| Santa Cruz Bolivia South America| Alto Paraguay Paraguay South America| Central Paraguay South America| Itapúa Paraguay South America| Corrientes Argentina South America| Jujuy Argentina South America| Misiones Argentina South America| Tucuman Argentina South America| Saint Lucia South America| Saint Kitts Saint Kitts and Nevis South America| Saba South America| Saint Vincent and the Grenadines South America|