Monographs Details: Fissidens pellucidus Hornsch. var. pellucidus
Authority: Pursell, Ronald A. 2007. Fissidentaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 101 (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Fissidentaceae
Synonyms:Fissidens pellucidus Hornsch., Conomitrium pellucidum (Hornsch.) Müll.Hal., Fissidens subcrenatus Schimp., Fissidens rufulus Schimp., Fissidens wrightii A.Jaeger, Conomitrium wrightii (A.Jaeger) Müll.Hal., Fissidens flexinervis Mitt., Fissidens prionodes f. flexinervis (Mitt.) Florsch., Fissidens pellucidens Hornsch. ex Ule, Fissidens pyrenocystis Cardot, Fissidens portoricensis Hampe, Fissidens subpellucidus Broth.
Description:Variety Description - Plants light green, becoming rust-colored, particularly in stems and costae. Stems monomorphic, unbranched and branched, 2.0-9.0 mm long x 1.0-2.5 mm wide; rhizoids basal and axillary, smooth, reddish; axillary hyaline nodules absent; epidermis and outer 1-3 tiers of cortical cells small, incrassate, pigmented; inner cortical cells larger, thin-walled, hyaline; central strand present. Leaves ± crispate, usually ± rolled inward longitudinally toward costa when dry, distant to loosely imbricate, as many as 25 pairs, lanceolate, acute to obtuse-acuminate, 0.8-1.7 mm long x 0.2-0.4 mm wide; margin entire to crenulate-serrulate, elimbate or with a weak limbidium in the proximal parts of vaginant laminae of perichaetial leaves, limbidial cells unistratose; costa ending 2-5 cells below apex to short-excurrent, bryoides type; dorsal laminae ending at insertion or slightly above, or slightly decurrent; vaginant laminae of cauline leaves ± 1/2 leaf length, acute, unequal, minor lamina ending ± 1/2 distance between margin and costa or narrowed and ending on costa or rounded and free distally, broad and retuse in perichaetial leaves; laminal cells distinct, guttulate, unistratose, firm-walled, distinct, smooth, sometimes bulging, regularly or irregularly quadrate to hexagonal, 7-27 µm long, marginal cells slightly but inconspicuously smaller, 6-15 µm long, juxtacostal cells in proximal parts of vaginant laminae larger, ± oblong. Monoicous (synoicous, rhizautoicous); antheridia and archegonia in same perichaetium; perigonial stems usually gemmiform, around base of perichaetial stems; perichaetia terminal, sometimes terminal on short basal stems. Sporophytes 1-2 per perichaetium, yellow, darkening with age; seta smooth, 2.5-4.5 mm long; theca exserted, erect and radially symmetric, 0.3-0.7 mm long, stomatose, exothecial cells quadrate to oblong, collenchymatous; peristome scariosus type; operculum conic, long-rostrate, 0.3-0.8 mm long. Spores smooth, 9-11µm diam. Calyptra cucullate, smooth, 0.4 mm long, covering only the rostrum.

Discussion:Synonyms from outside the area of this study (Bruggeman-Nannenga, 1993; Bruggeman-Nannenga & Pursell, 1995; Iwatsuki & Suzuki, 1982; Iwatsuki & Haji Mohammed, 1987): Fissidens amblyotis Dixon, Fissidens calabariae Müll. Hal. ex Dusén, Fissidens crassinervis Thwaites & Mitt, in Mitt., Fissidens cremersii Bizot & Onraedt in Bizot, Fissidens crispidioides Broth., Fissidens cryptarum Müll. Hal., Fissidens dispersus Cardot, Fissidens ghanae Bizot, Fissidens grandiretis Renauld & Cardot (non Fissidens grandiretis Müll. Hal.), Fissidens holstii Broth., Fissidens immutatus Dixon, Fissidens laxus Sull. & Lesq., Fissidens linderi P. de la Varde & Thér., Fissidens palvadeaudi Bizot, Fissidens pictus Bizot & Pócs, Fissidens propinguus P. de la Varde, Fissidens ripensis Mitt., Fissidens subpictus Bizot & Pócs, and, Fissidens taeniocladus P. de la Varde.

Fissidens pellucidus is characterized by its lustrous appearance, its guttulate, smooth, more or less regularly hexagonal, and firm-walled laminal cells. As cautioned previously, however, one must be careful not to interpret the guttulae as papillae. Often the plants, particularly in the stem and costa, are rust colored. The costa can be quite variable in length, from ending several cells below the leaf apex to excurrent (this latter expression can be interpreted as F. saülensis). The distal end of the minor lamina can also be variable, from rounded and free to acute and ending between the costa and leaf margin to narrowed and ending of the costa. Infrequently, the vaginant laminae of perichaetial leaves bear a weak limbidium. Fissidens pellucidus is most apt to be confused with F. saülensis, but in this species there are usually persistent protonemata, the costa is invariably excurrent, the leaf apex is usually asymmetric, and a limbidium occurs on the vaginant laminae of most or all leaves.

Distribution and Ecology: Mexico (Chiapas, Veracruz); Central America (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama); West Indies (Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, St. Lucia); South America (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad, Venezuela); on soil, termite nests, rocks, rotting wood, and infrequently on tree bark; near sea level-2200 m. This variety also occurs in the United States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Louisiana), Africa, Asia, and Australasia.

Distribution:El Seibo Dominican Republic South America| Morona-Santiago Ecuador South America| Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni French Guiana South America| Saint Andrew Jamaica South America| Dominica South America| Saint Ann Jamaica South America| Saint Lucia South America| Chiapas Mexico North America| Baja Verapaz Guatemala Central America| Atlántida Honduras Central America| Comayagua Honduras Central America| Yoro Honduras Central America| Cartago Costa Rica Central America| Puntarenas Costa Rica Central America| San José Costa Rica Central America| Bocas del Toro Panamá Central America| Chiriquí Panamá Central America| Coclé Panamá Central America| Colón Panama Central America| Darién Panamá Central America| Panamá Panama Central America| San Blás Panamá Central America| Sancti Spíritus Cuba South America| Santiago de Cuba Cuba South America| La Vega Dominican Republic South America| Pedernales Dominican Republic South America| San Cristóbal Dominican Republic South America| Puerto Rico South America| Amazonas Colombia South America| Antioquia Colombia South America| Casanare Colombia South America| Chocó Colombia South America| Meta Colombia South America| Risaralda Colombia South America| Vaupés Colombia South America| Amazonas Venezuela South America| Aragua Venezuela South America| Miranda Venezuela South America| Monagas Venezuela South America| Zulia Venezuela South America| Mazaruni-Potaro Guyana South America| Brokopondo Suriname South America| Nickerie Suriname South America| Para Suriname South America| Sipaliwini Suriname South America| Cayenne French Guiana South America| Napo Ecuador South America| Zamora-Chinchipe Ecuador South America| Loreto Peru South America| Amazonas Brazil South America| Distrito Federal Brazil South America| Goiás Brazil South America| Pará Brazil South America| Paraná Brazil South America| Pernambuco Brazil South America| Rio de Janeiro Brazil South America| Rondônia Brazil South America| Roraima Brazil South America| Santa Catarina Brazil South America| São Paulo Brazil South America| Beni Bolivia South America| Santa Cruz Bolivia South America| Cordillera Paraguay South America| Paraguarí Paraguay South America| Trinidad and Tobago South America|