Monographs Details: Fissidens curvatus Hornsch.
Authority: Pursell, Ronald A. 2007. Fissidentaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 101 (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Fissidentaceae
Synonyms:Conomitrium lindigii Hampe, Fissidens lindigii (Hampe) A.Jaeger, Fissidens tequendamensis Mitt., Fissidens luteo-viridis Lindb., Fissidens indistinctus Müll.Hal., Fissidens perexilis Broth., Fissidens capillisetus Broth., Fissidens minutissimus Besch. & Geh., Fissidens laxereticulatus Besch. & Geh., Fissidens brotheri Paris, Fissidens brotherianus Paris, Fissidens valdiviensis Herzog, Fissidens bockii Herzog, Fissidens brotherianus var. longisetus Thér., Fissidens crassicuspis Broth., Fissidens diversiformis Broth., Fissidens subinclinatulus Müll.Hal. ex Broth., Fissidens subinclinatus Müll.Hal., Fissidens filirameus R.S.Williams, Fissidens lindigii var. latifolius P.de la Varde & Thér., Fissidens milobakeri L.F.Koch, Fissidens flavosetus Pursell
Description:Species Description - Plants pale to dark green. Stems often dimorphic, delicate, unbranched or branched from older parts, infertile ones to 10mm [1 cm] long x l.0-2.5 wide, fertile ones 1.2-5.0 mm long x l. 0-2.0 wide; rhizoids basal, smooth, reddish; axillary hyaline nodules present; epidermis and outer tier of cortical cells small, incrassate, pigmented; inner cortical cells larger, thin-walled, hyaline; central strand present or absent. Leaves ± crispate when dry, distant to imbricate, as many as 25 pairs, usually fewer on fertile stems, narrowly lanceolate to ± ovate-lanceolate, acute to sharply acute to short-acuminate, to 1.9 mm long x 0.30 mm wide; margin ± entire, limbate on all laminae, limbidium confluent with the costa or ending just below leaf apex, extending to base of dorsal lamina, limbidial cells bi- or tristratose; costa percur-rent to excurrent, bryoides type; dorsal lamina ending at or above insertion, infrequently ± decurrent; vagi-nant laminae of cauline leaves 1/2-4/5 leaf length, acute, ± equal to unequal; laminal cells distinct, eguttulate, unistratose, smooth, plane or slightly bulging, irregularly hexagonal, most slightly longer than wide, 7-22 µm long x 4-9 (-13) µm wide, slightly larger in proximal parts of vaginant laminae. Monoicous (rhizautoicous); perigonial stems gemmiform at base of fertile and infertile stems; perichaetia terminal. Sporophytes 1 per perichaetium, yellow, darkening with age; seta smooth, 3-12 mm long; theca exserted, inclined, arcuate, bilaterally symmetric to ± erect; radially symmetric, 0.35-1.25 mm long, stomatose, exothecial cells quadrate to oblong, vertical walls somewhat thicker than horizontal walls, collenchymatous; peristome bryoides type, fragile; operculum conic, short-rostrate, 0.250.30 mm long. Spores smooth to finely papillose, 11-18 µm diam. Calyptra cucullate, smooth, 0.5 mm long. n = 10, 13 (Fritsch, 1991, as Fissidens francii and Fissidens pungens).

Discussion:Synonyms from outside the area of this study (Bruggeman-Nannenga & Pursell, 1995; Iwatsuki, 1980, 1982; Iwatsuki & Suzuki, 1989; Magill, 1981; Sainsbury, 1952; Sim, 1926; Wijk et al., 1959): Fissidens aberrans Broth. & Dixon in Dixon, Fissidens algarvicus Solms, Fissidens aristatus Broth, (non Fissidens aristatus Sim), Fissidens campyloneurus Beckett, Fissidens cuspidatus Müll. Hal., Fissidens francii Thér., Fissidens gracilis (Hampe) A. Jaeger [non Fissidens gracilis (Bach. Pyl.) Brid.], Fissidens laxifolius Hornsch., Fissidens minusculus Broth. & Paris in Broth., Fissidens pungens Müll. Hal. & Hampe, Fissidens pycnophyllus Müll. Hal., Fissidens rambii Gangulee, Fissidens saxatilis Tuzibe & Nog., Fissidens stridulus Müll. Hal. and Fissidens subxiphioides Broth.

Fissidens curvatus has a distribution ranging from Africa northward into Europe, westward through the Americas, including the Pacific Coast of the United States, Australasia, and Asia. This extensive range and the variability of the species have contributed to its extensive synonymy. In most collections the stems are dimorphic, i.e., the infertile stems are longer and have a greater number of leaves than the perichaetial stems. Moreover, this dimorphism is enhanced by the difference in the size of the leaves; those of the infertile stems are smaller than those of the perichaetial stems. Some collections, however, have slender, delicate leaves while other collections have broader leaves. Infrequently, there are collections in which this dimorphism is lacking, i.e., the F. capillisetus expression. The species is distinguished by its distinct limbidium, confluent at the leaf apex, excurrent costa, and longer than wide laminal cells. It is closest to F. taylorii, both species have a typical bryoides type peristome and the stems can be dimorphic. In F. taylorii, however, the limbidium is usually poorly developed and the costa is shorter.

The mention of F. curvatus brings to mind the comment in Magill's (1981) excellent treatment of Fissidens for southern Africa that the species is endemic. Indeed, at the time, he could not have realized the remarkable distribution of this species.

Distribution and Ecology: Mexico (Baja California Sur, Hidalgo, México, Nayarit, Querétero, Tlaxcala); West Indies (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti); South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela); on soil, often along streams; near sea level in the southern parts of the range, 3500 m in more northern parts of its Neotropical range. The species is also found in Europe, Africa, the United States (California), New Zealand, Australia, New Caledonia, Philippines, Japan, China, and India.

Distribution:La Araucania Chile South America| Santiago Chile South America| Baja California Sur Mexico North America| Hidalgo Mexico North America| México Mexico North America| Nayarit Mexico North America| Querétaro Mexico North America| Tlaxcala Mexico North America| Independencia Dominican Republic South America| Tolima Colombia South America| Mérida Venezuela South America| Chimborazo Ecuador South America| Loja Ecuador South America| Ica Peru South America| La Libertad Peru South America| Loreto Peru South America| Minas Gerais Brazil South America| Paraná Brazil South America| Rio de Janeiro Brazil South America| Rio Grande do Sul Brazil South America| Santa Catarina Brazil South America| São Paulo Brazil South America| Santa Cruz Bolivia South America| Antofagasta Chile South America| Biobío Chile South America| Los Lagos Chile South America| Maule Chile South America| Valparaíso Chile South America| Chubut Argentina South America| Neuquén Argentina South America| Santa Cruz Argentina South America| Tucuman Argentina South America|