Monographs Details: Roupala montana Aubl. var. montana
Authority: Prance, Ghillean T., et al. 2007. Proteaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 100: 1-218. (Published by NYBG Press)
Synonyms:Embothrium pinnatum Ruiz & Pav., Roupala pinnata (Ruiz & Pav.) Diels & J.F.Macbr., Roupala pyrifolia Knight, Roupala diversifolia Schott, Roupala media R.Br., Roupala dentata R.Br., Roupala montana var. dentata (R.Br.) Sleumer, Roupala complicata Kunth, Roupala ovalis Pohl, Roupala affinis Pohl, Roupala macropoda H.Karst., Roupala brasiliensis var. macropoda Meisn., Roupala gardneri Meisn., Roupala gardneri var. angustata Meisn., Roupala gardneri var. dentata Meisn., Roupala gardneri var. integrifolia Meisn., Roupala glabrata Klotzsch, Roupala martii Meisn., Roupala martii var. pinnata Meisn., Roupala martii var. simplicifolia Meisn., Roupala veraguensis, Roupala ovalis Pohl, Roupala boissieriana Meisn., Roupala tomentosa var. sellovii Meisn., Roupala montana var. complicata (Kunth) Griseb., Roupala montana var. heterophylla Griseb., Roupala borealis Hemsl., Roupala acuminata Glaz., Roupala darienensis Pittier, Roupala panamensis Pittier, Roupala discolor Rusby, Roupala dissimilis Pittier, Roupala repanda Lundell, Roupala sphenophylla Sleumer, Roupala mayana Lundell
Description:Variety Description - Shrub, or tree, 1-8 m tall, less commonly to 25 m. Young branch indumentum light brown, ferruginous or rufous, velutinous, short- to long-tomentose or appressed-pilose, rapidly glabrous to gradually glabrescent and fading to gray; bark usually light brown when young, dark gray, dark purple to red-gray or red-brown after peeling of outer layer. Lenticels numerous, inconspicuous, less commonly conspicuous, commonly minute, 0.2-0.5 mm diam., enlarging to 1 mm longest axis on older branches, granular, plane or raised, orange-brown to beige or gray. Leaves simple, rarely compound in fertile herbarium specimens, thin-coriaceous and pressing flat, to very rigid-coriaceous and pressing unevenly (undulate and buckled) or doubled-over, petiolate, drying pale gray green to pale brown, sometimes dark green or brown, the indumentum velutinous to straight-appressed, dense to sparse, glabrescent, more rapidly so above, the hairs often persistent along lower midrib and lamina on underside, light-brown through orange-brown to rufous. Compound leaves 4-8 pairs of leaflets, 19.7-33 cm long (inclusive of petiole); petiole 4.5-11.4 cm long, frequently sulcate. Lateral leaflets 6.2-12.2 × 1.2-4.3 cm, length:breadth 1.9-6.5:1; base strongly to weakly asymmetrical, cuneate to angustate, acute to rounded; apex acute to attenuate; margin serrate with 3-20 teeth, rarely entire; lateral veins 3-6 pairs; petiolules 0-5 mm long. Terminal leaflets 7.6-11.1 × 2.7-7.6 cm, length:breadth 1.3-3.7:1; base symmetrical to asymmetrical, attenuate, sometimes rounded to almost truncate; apex acute to attenuate; margin serrate with 7-9 pairs of teeth, less commonly almost entire with only 1-2 pairs of teeth; lateral veins ca. 3 pairs; petiolules 2-2.3 (-4) cm long. Simple leaf petiole (0.5) 1-5(-6) cm long × 1-2 (-3) mm broad at midlength, 1/1.5-1/3.7 (-1/6) the length of the lamina, semiterete at lamina end, flat adaxially, winged with descending lamina base, at times becoming canaliculate, terete towards the base, often rugose towards base, sparsely to densely ferruginous- to gray-velutinous or appressed-tomentose to pilose, glabrescent, persisting longest at base adaxially. Lamina (2.5-)4-14 × (l-)2-9(-ll) cm, length:breadth 1.2-3:1, the shape extremely variable, from narrowly ovate through ovate to widely ovate, elliptic to widely elliptic, oblong, and more rarely very widely ovate, suborbiculate, widely oblong, narrowly obovate to widely obovate, narrowly elliptic and lanceolate; base acute, obtuse, rounded or cordate, narrowly to broadly cuneate, sharply decurrent; apex acute or obtuse and short to long narrow-attenuate, more rarely rounded or rounded and acuminate, apical point of midrib not protruding; margin revolute or not, more pronounced towards base of lamina; marginal vein thick and prominent abaxially; margin entire, undulate, serrate with 3-22 pairs of teeth, more rarely crenate, irregularities starting well below half-way up the lamina; venation obscure to conspicuous, slightly impressed, plane, or slightly raised above, usually conspicuous and prominent below, semicamptodromous, single or double fractiflexed marginal vein; midvein reaching the apex; lateral veins (3-)4-7(-10) pairs. Inflorescence axillary, occasionally terminal, unbranched, 5-20(-26) cm ×(1.5-)1.7-2.5(-2.8) mm, the indumentum light brown, brown or rufous, short, sparsely pilose (sometimes appressed) to densely tomentose or velutinous; peduncle (0.2-)0.5-2(-3) cm × 0.8-2.5 mm, sterile bracts few to abundant towards the base. Common bracts 0.3-1.2(-1.5) × 0.3-2.5 mm, often broader than long, usually tapering gradually towards apex to very narrow attenuate, rarely broader at midlength than base, ± glabrous, the margin fimbriate, to densely short-tomentose on the outside, hairs light brown to rufous, glabrous within. Flower-pair axis absent. Pedicels (1-)1.5-4.5 × 0.3-l mm, the indumentum as for inflorescence. Buds 0.8-1.7 mm broad at apex, 0.5-1 mm broad at midlength, square to rounded in section. Flowers (5-)7-9(-10.5) mm, varying greatly with regard to perianth indumentum, from ± glabrous, to very sparse short-appressed-pilose, to dense-pilose, tomentose or velutinous, light brown, brown or rufous; filaments 0-0.8(-1.5) mm long, attached to tepals 2-6.5 mm from base; anthers (l-)1.5-3 × 0.4-0.8 mm; nectary lobes 0.2-0.6 mm long, fleshy, the lobes free but often appearing fused when dry; ovary symmetrical or asymmetrical, more curved on one side than on the other (like half a pair); ovary hairs extending to 1-3 mm from base, covering entire ovary or lower on one side, short- to long-sericeous, the hairs weak, straight, appressed to bushing outward, light brown, orange, through ferruginous to rufous. Infructescence 4.5-19 cm long, glabrous with some persistent indumentum around pedicels, to puberulent or sparsely tomentose; fruit pedicels 2-5 × 0.8-1.5(-2) mm. Fruit 2-3.5(-3.7) × 0.8-1.5 cm, both sutured and unsutured sides curved equally or sutured side curved more strongly, rarely fruit elongate and sides almost flattened, base constricted for (1.5-)3-6 mm, the apex not constricted or constricted to 4 mm, including the persistent style base, straight or curved until perpendicular to unsutured side, rarely strongly curved so facing backward, the marginal vein inconspicuous to conspicuous on unsutured side, the vascular tissue sometimes conspicuous on the surface, light brown to dark brown, the indumentum appressed-pilose, or densely velutinous when young, the hairs light brown to orange-brown to rufous, glabrescent, glabrous at maturity. Seeds 1.8-2.5 × 0.5-1 mm.

Discussion:Roupala montana is quite indistinctive in that many of its characters may overlap with those of other species. The species can usually be identified by the moderately long, poorly defined petioles which appear winged due to decurrence of the lamina. The leaves usually dry pale green or pale brown, and the apex is attenuate and very frequently folded. The fruits are smallish compared to other species and are usually curved equally on both sides, glabrous when mature, and dry beige or gray.

Phenology. Flowering and fruiting in all months. See under varieties for details.

Distribution and Ecology: From Mexico, throughout Central America, Trinidad and Tobago, and widespread in South America to southern Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, and Paraguay. Found in moist, tropical, evergreen to dry, deciduous primary and secondary forest, more rarely in araucaria forest (Paraná, Brazil), and open grassland habitats of savanna, cerrado, cerradão, campo cerrado, campo sujo, wet campo, dry campo, campo rupestre, high altitude campo, capão, capoeira, and pasture, including gallery forests and forest remnants isolated among these open habitats, from sea level to 2550 m alt.

Distribution:Brazil South America| Bolivia South America| Argentina South America| Paraguay South America| Trinidad and Tobago South America| Mexico North America|