Monographs Details: Panopsis ferruginea (Meisn.) Pittier
Authority: Prance, Ghillean T., et al. 2007. Proteaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 100: 1-218. (Published by NYBG Press)
Synonyms:Andriapetalum ferrugineum Meisn., Roupala varelana Diels ex J.F.Macbr.
Description:Species Description - Tree. Young branches densely tomentose-crispate (rarely crispate to villous), yellow-brown to ferruginous, persisting late into development, eventually glabrescent; bark dark gray to dark brown suffused red bark; lenticels few, small, plane to slightly raised peripherally, granular, orange-brown. Leaves coriaceous, sometimes in near-verticils of four, decussate or subopposite-decussate to spiral; indumentum dense, appressed to closely appressed, yellow-brown to ferruginous tomentose-crispate (rarely crispate to villous) above and beneath, glabrescent above. Petioles 2-9 x 1.5-3 mm, flat and thick to subterete, indumentum as for leaves, very gradually glabrescent. Lamina 3-7 x 1.9-3.5(-6.5) cm, elliptic or suborbiculate, less frequently oblong; base symmetrical, rounded, steeply decurrent, rarely slightly cordate; apex obtuse to rounded; margin not re volute; venation obscure, slightly raised above, brochidodromous from basal vein or sometimes eucamptodromous at base; midrib plane to slightly raised above, densely buff-crispate at base becoming less dense towards apex; lateral veins 6-11 (-13) pairs, leaving midrib at 50-80°(-90° rarely), running straight and parallel before arcing. Primary axis of inflorescence branched, 3-8.5 cm x 1.5-2.5 mm; 2-6 lateral inflorescences at (1—)3—5 nodes, 2-6.5 cm x 1-2.5 mm, spiral or decussate, accessory branching rare; indumentum dense, yellow-brown to ferruginous tomentose-crispate. Common bracts ca. 2x0.6-lmm. Pedicels 1.5-4xca. 0.8-1 mm, not increasing in length significantly post-anthesis, the indumentum as for inflorescence. Flowers 4-5.5 mm long, the perianth indumentum as for inflorescence, becoming pilose; filaments 3-4 mm long, adnate to perianth very near to base or free to base; anthers 1 x 0.40.6 mm, oblong or elliptic; hypogynous nectary to 0.5-1 mm long, the lobes acuminate; ovary yellow-to orange-brown dense sericeous-villous (at times developing long-villous, straight hairs which protrude from a compact crispate indumentum as the gynoecium develops), the hairs reaching 2-2.5 mm from base, a few hairs extending to 3 mm; style 0.3-0.4 mm wide at midlength, not clavate. Fruit not known. Field characters. (details from two specimens only). Tree 6-10 m tall compact, almost a solid mass of inflorescences, branches very brittle. Leaves leathery, deep green above, brown-pubescent beneath. Flowers very fragrant, cream or white, external pubescence brown.

Discussion:There has been some confusion about the basionym of Panopsis ferruginea. It is Andriapetalum ferruginea Meisner and not Roupala ferruginea H.B.K., who were describing what is now placed in synonymy under Roupala monosperma var. monosperma.

Pittier, in recombining the specific epithet with Panopsis, used H.B.K. as the basionym author although it would appear that he meant to use the name Meisner. Both in the notes at the end of his description of P. cinnamomea in which Pittier discusses the differences between P. cinnamomea and P. ferruginea (in the same publication as the one in which he recombines P. ferruginea), and in the key itself where the recombination is made, it is most probable that he is talking about the species of Meisner.

The type specimens of Pavón are from Cuenca, Ecuador, which once belonged to the principality of Peru, hence Peru being written on photograph labels of the types. The isotypes at K and MA have labels that were presumably copied from the original, with the result that some of the information is slightly different. The K specimen has No 806 written, with no year being annotated, while the MA specimen has F.P. No 603, with the year as "Ao" (Anno) 806. The date on the holotype is clearly 1805 and the number assigned is from the Flora of Peru number, F.P. No. 603. Therefore, the information of number and date are thought to have been confused, and wrongly copied onto the isotype labels. The different specimens are presumed to have been collected at the same time.

The specimen Camp E-4780 has been included within Panopsis ferruginea despite its considerably larger size and slightly differing indumentum (in parentheses in the description). As there are only three collections of P. ferruginea with which to compare this slightly unusual specimen, it is better included until more material becomes available.

Panopsis ferruginea most closely resembles P. ornatinervia and P. cinnamomea. For differences with the former species, see discussion for that species; differences with P. cinnamomea are described here.

The indumentum on the underside of leaves, and inflorescences (including pedicels and perianth parts) of Panopsis ferruginea is dense tomentose-crispate and dull, while that of P. cinnamomea is closely appressed and sericeous. Panopsis ferruginea also differs from P. cinnamomea in its broader petioles (1.5-3 mm vs. 0.5-1.5 mm), rounded and rapidly decurrent leaf bases compared with acute, or rarely obtuse, greater number of vein pairs (9-11 (-12) vs. 5-7(-8)), the broader inflorescence ((1.7-)2-3 mm vs. 1-1.5 mm), longer bracteoles (2 mm vs. 1.5 mm), broader pedicels (0.8-1 mm vs. 0.30.6 mm), longer flowers (4-5.5 mm vs. 3-4 mm), hairs extending farther up from the base of the ovary (to 2-2.5(-3) mm vs. 1.3-2 mm), and the free part of filaments longer (3-4 mm vs. 1.5-3 mm). The geographical distributions also differ, P. ferruginea growing in the high Andes of Ecuador at 2300-3000 m altitude, whereas P. cinnamomea grows in the cloud forests of the western coastal Cordillera of Venezuela at 850-1600 m alt.

Phenology. Flowering Feb and Jul to Aug.

Distribution:Azuay Ecuador South America| Loja Ecuador South America|

Common Names:coco