Monographs Details: Panopsis metcalfii Killip & Cuatrec.
Authority: Prance, Ghillean T., et al. 2007. Proteaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 100: 1-218. (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Proteaceae
Synonyms:Panopsis rubra Killip & Cuatrec.
Description:Species Description - Tree. Young branches with very short, closely appressed indumentum, golden to ferruginous (rarely hirsute-crispate), glabrescent (rarely persistent); bark red-brown or dark gray-brown, lenticellate on older twigs only; lenticels small, to 1 mm long × 0.5 mm wide, elliptic or fusiform, plane, developing a hard raised periphery, granular, red-brown. Axillary buds large, solitary or stacked, ferruginous-rufous. Leaves subcoriaceous to coriaceous, decussate, subopposite-decussate, or spiral, the indumentum closely appressed, very short, fine pilose, with pale ferruginous to yellow hairs on both sides (rarely sparse ferruginous curly hairs beneath), rarely orange-red beneath, glabrescent, persisting longer along midrib. Petioles 1-4 cm long, ca. 1-2 mm wide at midlength to 5 mm wide at base, semiterete, narrowly grooved centrally, the indumentum very short, closely appressed, golden- or (rarely) brown-villous, through pilose to glabrous. Lamina 7.5-17.5 × 3.3-7 cm, elliptic, rarely narrowly obovate or suborbiculate; base symmetrical or slightly to markedly eccentric, acute-decurrent, more rarely obtuse-decurrent to rounded; apex acute, obtuse, or rarely rounded; margin occasionally slightly revolute; venation inconspicuous (rarely conspicuous) and only slightly raised above, at times somewhat impressed within the veins, deeply fractiflexed brochidodromous from second or third primary vein to apex, eucamptodromous at base; midrib grooved above; lateral veins 6-8 pairs, leaving midrib at (30-)40-60° at base and (40-)50-70° towards apex. Primary axis of inflorescence branched, 12-30 cm × 2-4 mm (difficult to determine, as scars towards base of primary axis could be those of leaves or lateral inflorescences); 6-13 lateral inflorescences at 5-11 nodes, 4-18 cm × 1-2 mm, decussate; indumentum villous to short-tomentose, golden or orange- to red-brown. Common bracts 1-2 mm long, golden, appressed-villous. Pedicels ca. 0.5-0.7 mm wide × 3.2-6.2 mm long (elongating little after perianth shed, to 7 mm), indumentum villous to short-tomentose, golden to brown. Flowers 5-5.5 mm long, the perianth with appressed or closely appressed hairs, dense, indumentum at times pilose, golden to brown; free part of filaments 3-3.5 mm long, adnate 0.5-1.5 mm from base of perianth parts; anthers 0.7-1 × ca. 0.4-0.5 mm, oblong or elliptic; hypogynous nectary to 0.3-0.5 mm long, the lobes acuminate; ovary hairs reaching to 2.5-3.5(-4) mm from base, gradually thinning out up the style; style 0.2-0.3 mm wide at midlength, filiform to slightly clavate. Fruit (sub) globose, 5.5 cm diam., the apiculum 3-5 mm, smooth, red-brown with buff to orange-brown scaling (lenticels). Field characters. Tree, 8-25 m tall, 30-50 cm diam. Crown dense, much branched. Bark light brown, lenticellate, 8 mm c.s., pink, internal bark dripping mucilaginous substance. Wood flesh pink, whitish pink, or cream colored; exterior hard, heavy. Leaves opposite, subopposite, or alternate; coriaceous, rigid, gray-green above, yellow-green beneath. Inflorescence branches ruddy, tinted yellowish-white. Flower buds dull greenish yellow, open flowers white to cream or yellowish, very sweetly fragrant. Fruit globose, lenticellate with apiculum 3-5 mm, with green and silvery brown hairs when young; one white seed.

Discussion:Panopsis metcalfii and P. rubra were described as new species in the same publication, by Killip and Cuatrecasas (1950). Differences between the species included the shape of the leaves, venation prominence and secondary nerve angle, young branch and inflorescence indumentum, pedicel length and strength, and flower and inflorescence size. Sleumer sunk P. metcalfii with P polystachya but recognized P rubra. Here, P. metcalfii is considered distinct from P. polystachya, while P. rubra is synonymous with it. While there is much variation in the leaf between P. metcalfii and what was previously considered P. rubra- from subcoriaceous in texture, elliptic in shape, acute at apex, and attenuate at base in P. metcalfii, to being coriaceous, oblong, obtuse at apex, and rounded at base in P. rubra- there are several specimens that cross this dividing line in one characteristic or another, forming a continuum.

The leaf base of Panopsis metcalfii is often eccentric, which is one way of distinguishing it from P. polystachya. Other distinguishing features include the longer grooved petiole, generally larger lamina, greater number of lateral veins (6-8 vs. 4-6(-7) pairs), generally larger inflorescence (to 22 cm long with branches to 15 cm vs. to 9 cm long with branches to 8 cm), longer pedicels (3.2-6.2 mm vs. 1.7-4.2), longer flowers (5-5.5 mm vs. 3.4-4.8 mm), and larger fruit (4.5-6 cm diam, with pericarp of 7-9 mm thick according to protologue vs. 2-4 cm diam, with pericarp 1.5-2 mm thick).

Panopsis metcalfii differs from P. sulcata in its petioles, these being smooth, semiterete, with a narrow groove continuing from the midrib, while the wrinkled, sulcate petioles of P. sulcata have a broad channel formed by the sides of the petiole curving upwards. Petioles of P metcalfii tend to be longer, 1-4 cm, as compared with those of P. sulcata, at 1-1.7 cm long. Leaves of P. metcalfii are subcoriaceous to coriaceous and are mainly acute-decurrent at the base, rarely obtuse-decurrent; leaves of P. sulcata are chartaceous to subcoriaceous, and obtuse to slightly cordate at the base. Longer hairs cover the ovary of P. metcalfii, reaching 2-3.5(-4) mm up the style from the base of the ovary, compared with 1.5-2(-3) mm in P. sulcata. When more material of P. sulcata and P. metcalfii is collected, especially in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, the two species may be found to form a continuum, but on the basis of material presently available, they are considered distinct.

Panopsis metcalfii differs from P. perijensis in the characteristics of its leaves. The leaves of Panopsis perijensis are spirally arranged, sometimes becoming spread verticils, cuneate, with slightly decurrent bases, obtuse apices, wide-ranging shape; the lamina is glabrous above and beneath. Lateral vein pairs number 7-13 (vs. 6-8 in P. metcalfii), the flat to terete petiole is without the groove that distinguishes P metcalfii, and the hypogynous nectary of P. perijensis reaches 0.6-1 mm, compared with 0.3-0.5 mm for P. metcalfii.

Panopsis metcalfii differs from P. yolombo in its petiolar groove, fewer lateral vein pairs (6-8 vs. 816), generally longer pedicels (3.2-6.2mm vs. 2-4.5 mm), longer flower (5-5.5 mm vs. 4-4.5 mm), and longer ovary hairs (extending to 2.5-3.5(-4) mm from base of ovary vs. 1.5-2 mm).

Differing somewhat in vegetative characteristics from Panopsis metcalfii is the specimen Killip et al. 15945, which has longer petioles and broader, rounder leaves with an overall suborbiculate shape, only the young leaves being elliptic. Sparse ferruginous curly hairs occupy the lower leaf surface, compared with the short, close-appressed hairs above and beneath on the leaves of P. metcalfii, which become completely glabrous. The indumentum of the branches is villous-crispate and persists in considerable density on mature twigs, while twigs of P. metcalfii become glabrous early in development. The fruit of P. metcalfii is said to be round, compared with the (immature) zygomorphic fruit of Killip et al. 15945, which is protracted at the base and curves over anterio-posteriorly at the apex (this may be a feature of immaturity). This specimen is included in P. metcalfii for the moment.

Phenology. Flowering Apr-Sep, old flowers and immature fruit present in Feb; fruiting in Jul, Oct, and Dec.

Distribution:Colombia South America| Napo Ecuador South America| Antioquia Colombia South America| Cauca Colombia South America| Santander Colombia South America| Valle del Cauca Colombia South America|

Common Names:yolombo Colorado, umay, pepo