Monographs Details: Fissidens asplenioides Hedw.
Authority: Pursell, Ronald A. 2007. Fissidentaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 101 (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Fissidentaceae
Synonyms:Dicranum asplenioides (Hedw.) F.Weber & D.Mohr, Skitophyllum asplenioides (Hedw.) Bach.Pyl., Schistophyllum asplenioides (Hedw.) Brid., Fissidens turbinatus Taylor, Fissidens genunervis Müll.Hal., Fissidens obtusatus Hampe, Fissidens martinicae Besch., Fissidens nigricans Schimp. ex Besch., Fissidens guadelupensis Schimp. ex Besch., Fissidens similiretis var. guadalupensis (Schimp. ex Besch.) Grout, Fissidens glossophyllus Müll.Hal., Fissidens barbae-montis Müll.Hal., Fissidens costaricensis Besch., Fissidens lingulatus C.Müll., Fissidens gracilifrondeus Müll.Hal., Fissidens revolvens Schimp., Fissidens araucarieti Müll.Hal., Fissidens linguaefolius Müll.Hal., Fissidens spectabilis Müll.Hal., Fissidens glossophylloides Besch. & Geh., Fissidens ligulaefolius Müll.Hal., Fissidens obtusissimus (Florsch.) Pursell, Fissidens amboroicus Herzog, Fissidens maschalanthus var. minor Dusén, Fissidens pycnotylus Broth., Fissidens asplenioides var. latifolius Thér., Fissidens laxobasis Bizot & Thér.
Description:Species Description - Plants yellow green to blackish green. Stems monomorphic, 3.5 mm - 54.0 mm [5. 4 cm] long x 1.5-4.0 mm wide, unbranched and sparingly branched; rhizoids basal and axillary, smooth, reddish; branches with basal rhizoids; axillary hyaline nodules present; epidermis and 2-3 tiers of outer cortical cells small, incrassate, pigmented; inner cortical cells larger, thin-walled, hyaline; central strand present. Leaves most often inrolled from tips, somewhat crispate when dry, imbricate to distant, as many as 50 pairs, lanceolate to Ungulate to linear-lingulate, rounded to obtuse to acute, sometimes apiculate, 1.4-4.0 mm long x 0.3-0.7 mm wide, perichaetial leaves usually longest; margin ± entire to crenulate-serrulate, sometimes unevenly so at leaf apex, elimbate or with a weak limbidium in proximal parts of vaginant laminae of most leaves; costa ending 3-8 cells below apex, oblongifolius type, distal part in transverse section showing 2 stereid bands separated by 3-4 enlarged cells arranged in a single row; dorsal lamina ending at or somewhat above insertion; vaginant laminae of cauline leaves 1/2-3/4 leaf length, unequal, minor lamina rounded distally, attached only along costa or infrequently acute, narrowed and ending on or very near costa; laminal cells distinct, eguttulate, unistratose, infrequently bistratose juxtacostally, firm-walled, lenticularly thickened in dorsal and ventral laminae, irregularly rounded-hexagonal, 7.5-12 µm, plane or slightly bulging in vaginant laminae, juxtacostal and inner proximal cells of vaginant laminae larger and oblong, marginal cells in proximal part of vaginant laminae elongate, oriented vertically, forming a weak limbidium, median marginal cells of vaginant laminae ± elongate, oriented obliquely. Dioicous; perigonia and perichaetia terminal, naked archegonia often in axils of distal leaves. Sporophytes 1-2 per perichaetium, orange-red; seta smooth, to 6 mm long; theca exserted, ± erect, radially symmetric or slightly arcuate, bilaterally symmetric, to 1.5 mm long, stomatose, exothecial cells quadrate to oblong, walls more or less evenly thickened; peristome taxifolius type; operculum conic, long-rostrate, to 1 mm long. Spores finely papillose, 7.5-12.0 µm diam. Calyptra cucullate, smooth, 1.0-1.7 µm long. n=12 (Fritsch, 1991).

Discussion:Synonyms from outside the area of this study (Bruggeman-Nannenga et al., 1994): Fissidens amblyophyllus Müll. Hal., Fissidens asplenioides var. angustata Cardot, Fissidens atlanticus Renauld & Cardot, Fissidens boivinianus Besch., Fissidens caloglottis Müll. Hal., Fissidens ligulatus Hook. f. & Wilson, Fissidens nadeaudii Besch., Fissidens nematopteris Müll. Hal. ex Dusén, and Fissidens ruwenzorensis Thér. & Naveau in Naveau.

Fissidens asplenioides is one of the larger species in section Amblyothallia, with stems measuring more than 5 cm long, although there are collections in which stems measure no more than 3.5 mm. The species can be confused with F. maschalanthus. Both species are similar in size, have lenticularly thickened cells in the dorsal and ventral laminae, and usually have a weak limbidium on the proximal margins of the vaginant laminae, above which the elongate marginal cells are obliquely oriented. Fissidens asplenioides, however, is distinguished by a minor lamina that is usually rounded and free at its distal end, and a dorsal lamina that usually ends well above the leaf insertion. The distal part of the leaf in F. asplenioides in transverse section shows a single row of enlarged cells, although occasionally one of these cells can be slightly out of line. On the other hand, these enlarged cells in F. maschalanthus are found in 2, sometimes 3, irregular rows.

Fissidens asplenioides can also be confused with F. polypodioides of section Pachyfissidens. Fissidens asplenioides, however, has an oblongifolius type costa, while F. polypodioides has a taxifolius type costa Also, dorsal and ventral laminal cells of F. asplenioides are smaller and lenticularly thickened while those of F. polypodioides are larger and lack the lenticular thickening. Whereas the median marginal cells on the vaginant laminae of F. asplenioides are somewhat elongate and obliquely oriented those of F. polypoioides do not differ appreciably in appearance from the inner vaginant laminal cells.

A freakish aquatic expression, Fissidens asplenioides var. aegrotus (Bizot) Brugg.-Nann., Pursell & Z. Iwats., known from Tanzania and Samoa, has greatly reduced dorsal and ventral laminae, irregular lamellae on the distal end of the costa, and bistratose laminal cells. An aquatic expression from the Neotropics, Colombia, Idrobo 4015 (U), has unistratose laminal cells, lacks the lamellae on the costa, and has better developed ventral and dorsal laminae (Bruggeman-Nannenga et al., 1994).

Distribution and Ecology: Mexico (Baja California Sur, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Zacatecas); Central America (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama); West Indies (Cuba, Haiti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, St. Vincent); South America (northern Argentina, Bolivia, southeastern Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela); moist shaded soil in forests, on stream and roadside banks, rocks along and jutting from streams, wet cliff faces, aside waterfalls, in spray zone of waterfalls, and infrequently on tree trunks; 1000-4500 m or 220-670 m at the upper and lower extremes of its distribution, e.g., West Indies and Chile. However, a specimen (Allen 17267, MO) was collected at a low elevation, 120 m, in Honduras. The species is essentially pantropical; found also in southeastern United States (Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina), Africa, Asia, and Australasia (India south through Indonesia to Australia and New Zealand).

Distribution:Rio Negro Argentina South America| Neuquén Argentina South America| Magellanes Chile South America| Distrito Capital Colombia South America| Norte de Santander Colombia South America| Alajuela Costa Rica Central America| Elías Piña Dominican Republic South America| Cotopaxi Ecuador South America| Pichincha Ecuador South America| Sololá Guatemala Central America| Francisco Morazán Honduras Central America| Baja California Sur Mexico North America| Chiapas Mexico North America| Chihuahua Mexico North America| Distrito Federal Mexico North America| Durango Mexico North America| Guerrero Mexico North America| Hidalgo Mexico North America| Jalisco Mexico North America| México Mexico North America| Michoacán Mexico North America| Morelos Mexico North America| Nayarit Mexico North America| Oaxaca Mexico North America| Puebla Mexico North America| Querétaro Mexico North America| Tamaulipas Mexico North America| Veracruz Mexico North America| Zacatecas Mexico North America| Alta Verapaz Guatemala Central America| Baja Verapaz Guatemala Central America| Chimaltenango Guatemala Central America| Chiquimula Guatemala Central America| El Progreso Guatemala Central America| Huehuetenango Guatemala Central America| Quezaltenango Guatemala Central America| Quiché Guatemala Central America| Sacatepéquez Guatemala Central America| San Marcos Guatemala Central America| Suchitepéquez Guatemala Central America| Zacapa Guatemala Central America| Toledo Belize Central America| Atlántida Honduras Central America| Comayagua Honduras Central America| Cortés Honduras Central America| Lempira Honduras Central America| Olancho Honduras Central America| Ahuachapán El Salvador Central America| San Salvador El Salvador Central America| Santa Ana El Salvador Central America| Jinotega Nicaragua Central America| Rivas Nicaragua Central America| Cartago Costa Rica Central America| Heredia Costa Rica Central America| Puntarenas Costa Rica Central America| San José Costa Rica Central America| Bocas del Toro Panamá Central America| Chiriquí Panamá Central America| Coclé Panamá Central America| Panamá Panama Central America| Veraguas Panama Central America| Holguín Cuba South America| Santiago de Cuba Cuba South America| Jamaica South America| Nord-Ouest Haiti South America| Ouest Haiti South America| La Vega Dominican Republic South America| Peravia Dominican Republic South America| Santiago Dominican Republic South America| Puerto Rico South America| Dominica South America| Antioquia Colombia South America| Boyacá Colombia South America| Caldas Colombia South America| Caquetá Colombia South America| Casanare Colombia South America| Cauca Colombia South America| Cundinamarca Colombia South America| Magdalena Colombia South America| Nariño Colombia South America| Risaralda Colombia South America| Santander Colombia South America| Tolima Colombia South America| Valle Colombia South America| Aragua Venezuela South America| Lara Venezuela South America| Mérida Venezuela South America| Táchira Venezuela South America| Trujillo Venezuela South America| Zulia Venezuela South America| Azuay Ecuador South America| Bolívar Ecuador South America| Carchi Ecuador South America| Galápagos Islands Ecuador South America| Imbabura Ecuador South America| Loja Ecuador South America| Morona-Santiago Ecuador South America| Napo Ecuador South America| Tungurahua Ecuador South America| Zamora-Chinchipe Ecuador South America| Amazonas Peru South America| Cajamarca Peru South America| Cusco Peru South America| Huánuco Peru South America| La Libertad Peru South America| San Martín Peru South America| Mato Grosso Brazil South America| Minas Gerais Brazil South America| Paraná Brazil South America| Rio de Janeiro Brazil South America| Rio Grande do Sul Brazil South America| Santa Catarina Brazil South America| São Paulo Brazil South America| Chuquisaca Bolivia South America| Cochabamba Bolivia South America| La Paz Bolivia South America| Santa Cruz Bolivia South America| Tarija Bolivia South America| Aisén Chile South America| Biobío Chile South America| Juan Fernández Islands Chile South America| La Araucania Chile South America| Los Lagos Chile South America| Maule Chile South America| Valparaíso Chile South America| Cordillera Paraguay South America| Itapúa Paraguay South America| Paraguarí Paraguay South America| Buenos Aires Argentina South America| Córdoba Argentina South America|