Monographs Details: Piptocarpha axillaris subsp. axillaris
Authority: Smith, Gerald L. & Coile, Nancy C. 2007. (Compositae: Vernonieae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 99: 1--94. (Published by NYBG Press)
Synonyms:Vernonia axillaris Less., Carphobolus axillaris (Less.) Sch.Bip., Piptocarpha tomentosa Baker
Discussion:The only collections of Piptocarpha axillaris subsp. axillaris from Rio de Janeiro state have been made from Itatiaia National Park. These populations tend to have narrow leaves and to have longer achenes, florets, and inner pappus bristles than those in many of the other populations in southern Brazil. However, the character values for the Itatiaia populations intergrade with those from populations in southeastern Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and it was decided not to recognize the Itatiaia populations as a distinct subspecies.

Glaziou made a collection of Piptocarpha axillaris, which he recorded on the herbarium label as being collected in Rio de Janeiro. Because of the questionable validity of localities for his collections (Wurdack, 1970), it cannot be known if this locality is accurate, but a morphological study of the Glaziou collection has shown that the character values are similar to those obtained from Itatiaia collections. The Glaziou collection was named P. tomentosa by Baker as distinctive from P. axillaris, but here is recognized as a synonym of P. axillaris subsp. axillaris. We see little difference in the degree of tomentum between this collection and the range of specimens of P. axillaris, which also have dense tomentum.

Piptocarpha axillaris subsp. axillaris is distinguished from the other tree species by its elliptic leaves, typically coarsely denticulate above the middle and ferruginous to cinereous-stellate-tomentose below, and inflorescences of 5-15 heads with rusty brown phyllaries.

Though mentioned in literature, the following name was not validly published, merely written on herbarium specimens: Vanillosma rufulum Mart, ex Sch. Bip., Pollichia 20/21: 417. 1863, pro syn.

Distribution and Ecology: Piptocarpha axillaris subsp. axillaris is found in the southern highlands of Brazil from southeastern Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro to the inner coastal forests of Rio Grande do Sul. It is a large tree occasionally found growing in sandy loam in a community forest of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol) Kuntze (Paraná pine), P. angustifolia, and P. regnellii. A survey of Piptocarpha populations in this type of forest provided no evidence of hybridization among Piptocarpha species in this habitat. Elevation is 50 to 1700 m. Flowering and fruiting occur from Jul to Nov.

Distribution:Minas Gerais Brazil South America| Paraná Brazil South America| Rio de Janeiro Brazil South America| Rio Grande do Sul Brazil South America| Santa Catarina Brazil South America| São Paulo Brazil South America|

Common Names:Canela-podre, cambará-do-campo, Maria-mole, pau-touchino-de-folhas-largas