Monographs Details: Monoclea
Authority: Bischler, Hélène, et al. 2005. Marchantiidae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 97: 1--262. (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Monocleaceae
Scientific Name:Monoclea
Synonyms:Monoclea forsteri Hook.
Description:Genus Description - Thallus pure green, growing prostrate, apical cell cuneate, with 4 cutting faces; thallus variable in size, small to very large, 0.5-30 mm wide, without purplish pigmentation, the upper surface densely spotted by whitish or darkish dots in fresh material, margins usually crisped-undulate, midrib usually lacking. Branching dichotomous. Epidermal pores and differentiated assimilatory layer lacking. Basal tissue with oil cells containing some chloroplasts, without mucilage cavities. Ventral scales lacking. Mucilage papillae 1- to several-celled, on ventral side at thallus apex. Rhizoids smooth, sometimes with isolated papillae but not distinctly tuberculate, often branched. Asexual reproduction by specialized propagules lacking. Dioecious. Antheridia cylindrical-ellipsoidal, jacket unistratose except distally where 2 layers may be present, stalk short, embedded in dorsal receptacles, sometimes bounded by cilia; ostioles formed by protruding thallus tissue. Archegonia with 14-20 neck canal cells, in cross section with 6 neck cell tiers, terminal on main thallus, several per involucre, accompanied by mucilage hairs; involucre single, tubular, laterally fused to thallus margins; scales associated with gynoecia lacking. Calyptrae dividing before fertilization (2-3 layers), becoming 6- to 7-layered after fertilization. Pseudoperianths lacking. Sporophytes 1-3 per involucre, with conspicuous, obtuse-conical foot and long, thick seta arising near thallus apex, from beneath an elongate swelling of thallus. Capsules ellipsoidal, opening by a longitudinal slit; wall unistratose, with internal and external anastomosed thickenings; spore/elater ratio more than 4:1. Spores hardly polar, 10,000 or more per capsule, 12-23 µm diam., proximal and distal faces with reticulate ornamentation, triradiate scar indistinct. Elaters long, often branched, with 2-3 helical bands. Gametophytic chromosome number n = 9.

Discussion:A genus of 2 species growing on wet forest floor or on shady, damp banks and rocky riversides. One species is endemic in New Zealand (M. forsteri Hook.), the other (M. gottschei Lindb.) is common in the Neotropics, from C America to tropical and temperate S America.

Sporophytes are not uncommon in locations where male and female populations occur side by side. Sporophytes have been little collected, however, and are scarce in herbarium materials. The presence of sporophytes is indicated in the specimens examined section by "c. spor." Collections with numerous sporophytes are the ones from Jamaica gathered by Howe.