Distribution and Ecology: Piptocarpha rotundifolia is found throughout the Central Brazil Plateau (Fig. 11). This is the only Piptocarpha species that is a component of cerrado vegetation. It is found in typical cerrado (small trees and shrubs), in campo-cerrado (grassland), at the margin of gallery forests (narrow band of trees along the margin of small rivers in the valleys of the cerrado province), or on sandstone outcroppings. The typical cerrado soil is a red sandy clay, but the range is from very sandy to almost all clay. White butterflies observed flying around inflorescences and landing on heads in full flower are apparently the chief pollinators. Elevation ranges from 650-1200 m. Flowering and fruiting occur from Dec to Apr. This subspecies is found throughout the central and eastern regions of the cerrado province. It is easily recognized by its gnarled, tree habit, rotund leaves, and axillary glomerules. “Vanillosma firmum Mart, ex Sch. Bip., Pollichia 20/21: 424. 1863, (herb. Reg. Monac.)” was found written on a herbarium sheet, but that name was actually never validly published (-pro syn.).