Monographs Details: Siparuna echinata (Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth) A.DC.
Authority: Renner, Susanne S. & Hausner, Gerlinde. 2005. Siparunaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 95: 1--247 pp. (Published by NYBG Press)
Synonyms:Siparuna buddleiifolia (Benth.) A.DC., Siparuna apicifera (Tul.) A.DC., Siparuna holtonii A.DC., Siparuna apicifera var. acutissima Perkins, Siparuna killipii Perkins, Siparuna olivaceo-velutina Sleumer, Siparuna phaneroneura Standl., Siparuna valenzuelae Cuatrec.
Description:Species Description - Dioecious or rarely monoecious shrub or treelet, 1-8 m tall, reaching a dbh of 10 cm; young branchlets terete or quadrangular, densely villose to tomentose, older branches sometimes long and sprawling, glabrescent. Leaves opposite; petioles (l-)2-4(-8) cm long; lamina drying bullate, olive-green to burnt umber, ovate, elliptic, obovate, or lanceolate, 13-32 X 8-22 cm, the base acute to rounded, the apex acute to acuminate, the tip 1.5-3 cm long, the upper surface with simple or few-branched hairs, the lower surface more densely pubescent with tufted hairs, especially on the veins, with 12-22 pairs of secondary veins, these flat or impressed above, slightly raised below, the margin distinctly dentate, serrate, or crenate. Cymes 4-7 cm long, pubescent like the young branch-lets, with 20-50 flowers. Fresh flowers yellowish green; male floral cup obconical, 2-4.2 mm in diam., 2.5-4 mm high, the receptacle with tubercles, 0.2-0.3 mm long and tipped by spreading hairs (cf. Fig. 3G, except much longer), the tepals 4-5(-6), broadly triangular or rounded, 2-5 (-8) mm long, the floral roof moderately to distinctly raised, cylindrical, membranaceous and glabrous; stamens (6-)8-15; female floral cup urceolate, 3-3.5 mm in diam. and height, the receptacle with thin simple or branched tubercles, 1-2 mm long (cf. Fig. 51C, right), tipped by spreading hairs, each tuft with about 12 rays, the floral roof raised to a cylindrical bulge separated by a groove from a central tube sheathing the styles, glabrous; styles 4-6. Fruiting receptacle globose, 1-2 cm in diam. (fresh to 2.5 cm in diam.), conspicuously spiny and crowned by the persistent tepals, mature red or purple and strongly lemon-scented, splitting open to expose 4-6 blue-gray drupelets, each with a red stylar aril.

Discussion:Indigenous people in Ecuador use an extract of the fruits boiled in water to treat diarrhea. Leafy branches of Siparuna echinata are also waved over children’s cradles to protect them from “el frío,” a term referring to a range of “spiritual” and physical afflictions (see under S. schimpffii, S. macrotepala, and S. thecaphora).

Siparuna echinata is rather variable in pubescence, which led to its repeated description. Collections from Carchi and Nariño are more densely pubescent than plants from more southern localities in Ecuador. The hairy northern form has been recognized taxonomically as S. apicifera, while a less pubescent form was described as S. olivaceo-velutina. Because the flowers and fruiting receptacles cannot be distinguished from those of the type of S. echinata (and many other collections resembling it) we regard the material as conspecific. Siparuna holtonii was described to accomodate a monoecious specimen of S. echinata. The name was synonymized already by Perkins (1901) who realized that the occasional occurrence of single female flowers in otherwise male inflorescences cannot be accorded much weight. A similar modem collection is Ulloa 531. Another name here synonymized is S. valenzuelae. Cuatrecasas already suspected that this might be but a female of S. apicifera (another synonym of S. echinata, see above). A final synonym is S. phaneroneura, which Standley said resembled S. echinata except for narrower leaves with fewer lateral nerves, differences that do not hold up.

The closest relatives of Siparuna echinata may be S. calantha and S. petiolaris. They are readily distinguished, however, by their flowering receptacles: S. echinata has flower receptacles with long and slender tubercles, each topped by spreading hairs; S. calantha and S. petiolaris lack this feature. Also, leaves of S. echinata are covered with long tufted hairs, especially on the lower surface, leaves of S. calantha have small appressed stellate or short upright hairs, and leaves of S. petiolaris are near glabrous, except for a few stiff simple or few-branched hairs on the midrib.

Color photos of Siparuna echinata flowers being pollinated by gall midges can be found in Feil (1992) under the names S. echinata and S. olivaceo-velutina; color photos of the flowers and fruits also appear in the Flora of Ecuador (Renner and Hausner, 1997).
Distribution:Antioquia Colombia South America| Caldas Colombia South America| Cauca Colombia South America| Chocó Colombia South America| Huila Colombia South America| Nariño Colombia South America| Putumayo Colombia South America| Quindío Colombia South America| Risaralda Colombia South America| Tolima Colombia South America| Valle del Cauca Colombia South America| Bolívar Ecuador South America| Carchi Ecuador South America| Chimborazo Ecuador South America| Cotopaxi Ecuador South America| Imbabura Ecuador South America| Pichincha Ecuador South America| Sucumbíos Ecuador South America|

Common Names:chuchapanga, chuchamuyu, mono, naunash, Asna panga, furafango, guayusa, guayusa macho, Jabón, limoncillo