Monographs Details: Siparuna petiolaris Kunth
Renner, Susanne S. & Hausner, Gerlinde. 2005. Siparunaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 95: 1--247 pp. (Published by NYBG Press
Description:Species Description - Dioecious shrub or treelet, 2-4 m tall; young branchlets angular, brown-pubescent with up to 1.5 mm long few-branched hairs or glabrous and then with conspicuous petiole scars and large lenticels (cf. Fig. 2A). Leaves in whorls of 3 or 4, rarely opposite; petioles 1-3.5 cm long; lamina drying dark brown, chartaceous and brittle, lanceolate to oblanceolate 8.5-15 X 2.5-5 cm, the base acute, the apex acute or shortly acuminate, the tip to 0.5 cm long, both surfaces essentially glabrous except for a few stiff simple or few-branched hairs on the midrib, with 7-9 pairs of secondary veins, these flat above, moderately raised below, the margin deeply serrate or doubly serrate. Cymes ca. 2 cm long and pendent, with scarce stiff few-branched hairs or glabrous, with 5-12 flowers. Fresh flowers yellowish green or yellow; male flowers unknown; female floral cup urceolate or subglobose, 1.8-2.6 mm in diam., 1.9-2.5 mm high, the receptacle at anthesis with short (less than 0.5 mm long) tubercular outgrowths, each tipped by long simple or bifid yellowish hairs (0.7-1.2 mm long), glabrescent, the tepals 5-6, oblong, to 3 mm long and 0.5-1.2 mm broad, the floral roof consisting of a cylindrical bulge separated by a groove from a central tube sheathing the styles, glabrous; styles usually 3, thick. Fruiting receptacle globose, 0.6-1 cm in diam., crowned by the persistent tepals and covered with tubercles or spines (to 3 mm long), when fresh and mature red with cream tubercles or spines, strongly lemon-scented or with a pungent odor; drupelets 13, each with a sty lar aril.
Discussion:Although male flowers of Siparuna petiolaris are unknown, the species can be recognized by the combination of whorled leaves, deeply doubly-serrate leaf margins, spiny fruits, and flowers that have oblong or narrowly triangular tepals (unusual in Siparuna where most species have broadly ovate tepals). The length of the spines on the receptacles is variable, sometimes becoming up to 3 mm long in fruit. The only species morphologically similar to S. petiolaris is S. calantha from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The two differ in leaf size and density of pubescence, with S. calantha having much broader and hairier leaves with 12-18 pairs of secondary veins (vs. 7-9 pairs in S. petiolaris), and in the number of styles, with S. calantha having 5 to 8 styles and S. petiolaris three.
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