Monographs Details: Warnstorfla fluitans (Hedw.) Loeske
Authority: Hedenäs, Lars. 2003. Amblystegiaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 89: 1--107. (Published by NYBG Press)
Synonyms:Amblystegium andinum Mitt., Amblystegium fuegianum Mitt., Hypnum heseleri Ando & Higuchi, Hypnum fluitans Hedw., Drepanocladus fluitans (Hedw.) Warnst., Warnstorfia h-schulzei (Limpr.) Loeske, Drepanocladus h-schulzei (Limpr.) Loeske
Description:Species Description - Plants medium-sized to large; green, yellow green, or brownish to brownish red (clear red seen rarely in extremely exposed habitats in northern temperate zone). Stem pinnately (radially) or sparsely pinnately branched; hyalodermis absent; pseudoparaphyllia (especially outer ones) mostly ovate-triangular to lanceolate, sometimes irregular; axillary hairs with 1-4-celled upper part, this hyaline when young. Stem leaves falcate (gradually curved) or sometimes straight, narrow-ovate to triangular-ovate and narrowing gradually to apex, concave or slightly concave; apex acuminate; margin denticulate, sometimes only partially or indistinctly; costa ending 50-80% of way up leaf (occasionally shorter or double); median laminal cells 31.5-182.0 × 5.0-10.5 µm, incrassate or thin-walled, porose or eporose; alar cells ± inflated and hyaline; alar group usually indistinctly delimited, transverse, narrow-triangular, ± reaching costa. Autoicous. Inner perichaetial leaves narrowing ± abruptly to acuminate apex. Exostome outside reticulate in lower part. Spores 12.5-31.0 µm, finely papillose.

Discussion:Warnstorfla fluitans was reported from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru by Churchill (1994), Churchill & Linares (1995), Delgadillo et al. (1995), and Menzel (1992), and is here reported from Venezuela as well. Warnstorfla fluitans is recognized by its autoicous sexuality; its ± falcate (gradually curved) leaves with indistinctly delimited transverse-triangular alar groups; and its relatively narrow, mostly ovate-triangular to lanceolate pseudoparaphyllia (especially the outer ones). In southern S America and the subantarctic zone, there is another autoicous species of the genus, Warnstorfla laculosa (Mull. Hal.) Ochyra & Matteri, which has a leaf shape and alar groups that are a bit like of those in the northern hemispheric W. pseudostraminea (Mull. Hal.) Tuom. & T. J. Kop. In some leaves the alar cells form isodiametric groups, in some transverse-triangular groups; the supra-alar cells are sometimes enlarged and, together with the alar cells, form an ovate or rectangular group along the lower leaf margin. The relationship between Warnstorfla laculosa and W pseudostraminea needs to be evaluated further, but it seems clear that the southern taxon is a species other than W. fluitans. For the differences between W fluitans and W. exannulata, see the note after the latter.

Illustrations: Crum & Anderson (1981: p. 968), Hedenäs (1993a: p. 467; 1993b: p. 47), Nyholm (1965: p. 426, 427).

Distribution and Ecology: Venezuela (1950-2135 m a.s.l.), Colombia (2880-3975 m), Ecuador (3050-4000 m), and Peru (2300-3900 m). Also known from southern S America, including the Falkland Islands. Widespread mainly in arctic to temperate N America and Eurasia, as well as in N and C Africa, New Guinea, Australia, and New Zealand. Found in mineral-poor and relatively acid wetland habitats, in bogs and fens, sometimes on lake shores or submerged.

Distribution:Venezuela South America| Mérida Venezuela South America| Boyacá Colombia South America| Cauca Colombia South America| Colombia South America| Cundinamarca Colombia South America| Nariño Colombia South America| Tolima Colombia South America| Ecuador South America| Azuay Ecuador South America| Imbabura Ecuador South America| Napo Ecuador South America| Peru South America| Cajamarca Peru South America| San Martín Peru South America|