Monographs Details: Cassia langsdorffii var. latifoliola H.S.Irwin
Authors:Howard S. Irwin
Authority: Irwin, Howard S. 1964. Monographic Studies in Cassia (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae). I. Section Xerocalyx. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 12 (1): 1-114.
Family:Caesalpiniaceae
Description:Latin Diagnosis - Planta suffruticosa caules erectos aut adscendentes paucos ad aliquot 0.3—0.8 m alt. habens. Caules teretes, striati glabri. Stipulae magnae foliaceae adpressae persistentes caulem superiorem omnino aut partim celantes, oblongae ovataeve, saepe auriculatae obtusae interdum mucronulatae, 1.0-1.4 cm long., 0.4-0.8 cm lat., glabrae integrae. Petiolus 0.4-0.6 cm long., canaliculo adaxiali glabro aut parce pubescente, superficie abaxiali parce pilosa, pilis distaliter directis; rachis 0.3-0.5 brevior quam petiolus, terminaliter aristata. Gians 1 oblonga ovatave, scutellata, 1.3-1.8 mm long., 0.7-1.1 mm lat., subsessilis aut in stipite brevi crasso elevata. Foliola bijugata, longitudine subaequa, pari inferiore plerumque latiore, per pulvinulum parvum atrum 0.9-1.3 mm long, sessilia, lanceolato-oblonga ad obovata, basaliter obliqua glabra coriacea, 1.4-2.6 cm long., 0.4-1.0 cm lat., margines integri, plus minusve hyalini, apice late obtuso rotundatove. Flores axillares singulares; pedicelli late divergentes plerumque sursum arcuati, glabri, 1.0-2.5 cm long., 0.5 mm crass, dum florentes, usque ad 2.7 cm long., 1.2 mm crass, dum frugiferentes; bracteae 2 late deltoideo-ovatae aut -ellipticae, 2.9-3.7 mm long., 2.0-2.6 mm lat.; bracteolae paribus uno duobusve, unoquoque in pari suboppositae, lanceolatae, adpressae aut divergentes, 3.0-4.3 mm long., 0.8-1.3 mm lat.; sepala late lanceolata ovatave, glabra, 1.5-2.2 cm long., 0.4-0.7 cm lat.; petala flava, 1.4-1.8 cm long., 0.7-1.4 cm lat.; stamina flava; ovarium sericeum pilis subflavis subcinereisve. Siliqua anguste oblonga, recta aut paululum declinata, 4.8-6.3 cm long., 0.6-0.8 cm lat. superficies super semina cristata, parce adpresso-pubescentes. Semina glabra dura atro-brunnea aut atra, complanata, 4.0-5.5 mm long., 1.5-2.1 mm lat.

Species Description - Subshrub with few to several erect or ascending stems 0.3-0.8 m tall. Stems terete, striate, glabrous. Stipules large, foliaceous, wholly or partly obscuring the upper stem, oblong or ovate, often auriculate, obtuse, sometimes mucronulate, 1.0-1.4 cm long, 0.4-0.8 cm broad, glabrous. Petiole 0.4-0.6 long, the adaxial groove glabrous or sparingly pubescent, the abaxial surface sparsely pilose with clistally-directed hairs; rachis 0.3-0.5 as long as petiole. Gland 1, oblong or ovate, scutellate, 1.3-1.8 mm long, 0.7-1.1 mm broad, subsessile or elevated on a short thick stipe. Leaflets bijugate, subequal in length, the inferior pair usually broader, joined to rachis by a small black pulvinule 0.9-1.3 mm long, lanceolate-oblong to obovate, basally oblique, glabrous, coriaceous, 1.4-2.6 cm long, 0.4-1.0 cm broad; margins more or less hyaline, the apex broadly obtuse or rounded. Flowers solitary; pedicels widely divergent, usually arching upward, glabrous, 1.0-2.5 cm long and ca. 0.5 mm thick in flower, up to 2.7 cm long and ca. 1.2 mm thick in fruit; bracts 2, broadly deltoid- ovate or -elliptic, 2.9-3.7 mm long, 2.0-2.6 mm broad; bracteoles 1 or 2 pairs, subopposite in each pair, lanceolate, appressed or divergent, 3.0-4.3 mm long, 0.8-1.3 mm broad; sepals broadly lanceolate or ovate, glabrous, 1.5-2.2 cm long, 0.4-0.7 cm broad; petals, 1.4-1.8 cm long, 0.7—1.4 cm broad; ovary sericeous with yellowish or grayish hairs. Pod narrowly oblong, straight or somewhat declined, 4.8-6.3 cm long, 0.6-0.8 cm broad, faces cristate over the seeds, sparsely appressed-pubescent. Seeds flattened, 4.0-5.5 mm long, 1.5-2.1 mm broad. Chromosome number: not determined.

Distribution and Ecology - Distribution: Paraguay, in the highlands of the southeastern portion, elevation 1000-2000 feet, northeastward through São Paulo to central Minas Gerais, Brazil. Habitats not known. BRAZIL, MINAS GERAIS: Serra do Cipó, k. 139—estrada do Pilar, 11 Jan. 1934, Mello Barreto 5940 (F). SAO PAULO: w/o locality (Prov. S. Paulo), 1816—1821, Voyage d’Auguste de Saint-Hilaire 1347 (P). PARAGUAY: In regione fluminis Alto Paraná, 1909—10, K. Fiebrig 6223 (SI, US); In viciniis Caaguazú, 1905, Hassler 9263 (BM) ; In the campo, Estância Primera, Jan. 1932, P. Jorgensen 4826 (F, GH, MICH, SI, US).

Discussion:

This variety is based on 4 collections from the west drainage of the upper Rio Paraná. Although no similar material has yet appeared from the adjacent Brazilian state of Parana, Voy. de St. Hilaire 1347 (P) from São Paulo and Mello Barreto 5940 (F) from Serra do Cipó in Minas Gerais are both very similar to the Paraguayan material and are referred to this variety.

Affinity to C. langsdorffii is seen in the large oblong petiolar gland, large stipules, thick leaflets, and firm fruit. However the large flowers are more those of C. tetraphylla, which, as will be seen, is a wide-spread highly variable taxon distributed almost throughout the range of C. langsdorffii. It is suspected that occasional hybridization and "gene flow" between these 2 taxa is considerable.

Distribution:Brazil South America| Minas Gerais Brazil South America| São Paulo Brazil South America| Paraguay South America|