Monographs Details: Cassia langsdorffii var. parvifoliola H.S.Irwin
Authors:Howard S. Irwin
Authority: Irwin, Howard S. 1964. Monographic Studies in Cassia (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae). I. Section Xerocalyx. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 12 (1): 1-114.
Family:Caesalpiniaceae
Description:Latin Diagnosis - Planta suffruticosa erecia aui decumbens, ad 1.5 m alt., parce ad copiose ramosa. Stipulae adpiessae peisistentes, cordato-lanceolatae, acuminatae, 3.5—8.0 mm long., 1.5-3.0 mm lat., glabrae integrae. Petiolus 1.0-3.0 mm long., canaliculo adaxiali atque superfine abaxiali glabris aut raro pubescentilms; rachis aeque longa ac petiolus aut 0.5 brevior, terminaliter 0.6 mm lat., in stipite 0.2-0.7 mm alt. elevata, raro sessilis. Foliola bijugata, superiore pari longiore saepe divergenti-falcato, per pulvinulum parvum arcuatum atrum aut brunneum aut subflavum 0.2-0.4 mm long, sessilia, linearia aut lineari-lanceolata, ad basim obliqua glabra firme membranacea aut subcoriacea 0.9-2.1 cm long., 1.5-2.6 mm lat., plerumque flavo-aut cinereo-viridia, marginibus integris, saepe quasi hyalinis. Flores axillares, maxima ex parte singulares, intermittenter productae; pedicelli recti glabri aut raro in linea puberulentes, 0.4-2.0 cm long., 0.3-0.4 mm crass, dum florentes, usque ad 3.0 cm long., 0.7 mm crass, dum frugiferentes; bracteae 2, late deltoideae aut crescentiformes 0.4-0.7 mm long., 0.5-0.9 mm lat.; bracteolae suboppositae, lanceolatae ad ovatae, saepe divergentes, 2.0-3.2 mm longae, 0.5-1.3 mm latae; sepala lanceolata glabra, 1.3-1.6 cm long., 0.2-0.3 cm lat.; petala flava, quasi aeque longa ac sepala, 0.7-1.2 cm lat.; stamina flava; ovarium glabrum ad subiliter adpresso-sericeum.. Siliqua anguste oblonga, 2.2-3.4 cm long., 0.6-0.8 cm lat., superficies plana aut super semina paululum cristata, glabra aut parce adpresso-pubescens. Semina glabra clura atro-brunnea aut atra, paululum compressa, 3.5-5.0 mm long., 1.6-2.1 mm lat.

Species Description - Erect or decumbent subshrub to 1.5 m, sparingly to copiously branched. Stipules cordate-lanceolate, acuminate, 3.5-8.0 mm long, 1.5-3.0 mm broad, glabrous. Petiole 1.0-3.0 mm long, the adaxial groove and abaxial surface glabrous or rarely pubescent; rachis 0.5-1.0 as long as petiole. Gland 1, scutellate or shallowly urceolate, 0.4-0.6 mm broad, elevated on a stipe 0.2-0.7 mm high, rarely sessile. Leaflets bijugate, the superior pair longer and often divergent-falcate, sessile by a small arcuate black, brown, or yellowish pulvinule, 0.2-0.4 mm long, linear or linear-lanceolate, oblique at the base, glabrous, firmly membranaceous or subcoriaceous, 0.9-2.1 cm long, 1.5-2.6 mm broad, commonly yellow- or gray-green, the margins often somewhat hyaline. Flowers mostly solitary, produced intermittently; pedicels straight, glabrous or rarely puberulent in a line, 0.4—2.0 cm long and 0.3-0.4 mm thick in flower, up to 3.0 cm long and 0.7 mm thick in fruit; bracts 2, broadly deltoid or crescentiform, 0.4-0.7 mm long, 0.5-0.9 mm broad; bracteoles subopposite, lanceolate to ovate, often divergent, 2.0—3.2 mm long, 0.5-1.3 mm broad; sepals lanceolate, glabrous, 1.3-1.6 cm long, 0.2-0.3 cm broad; petals about as long as the sepals, 0.7-1.2 cm broad; ovary glabrous to finely appressed-sericeous. Pod narrowly oblong, 2.2-3.4 cm long, 0.6-0.8 cm broad, faces plane or slightly cristate over seeds, glabrous or sparsely appressed-pubescent. Seeds slightly compressed, 3.5-5.0 mm long, 1.6-2.1 mm broad. Chromosome number: n = 7.

Distribution and Ecology - Distribution: Brazil, Ceará, southward through Bahia, Minas Gerais, and southern Goiás to São Paulo. Perhaps also in southern Pará. Occurring in mountainous regions, chiefly on white or gray sandy soils, elevation 1500-3500 feet. BRAZIL, BAHIA: Entre Palmeiras e Lencoes, 14 Sept. 1956, E. Pereira 2216 (F). GOIAS: Chapadão dos Veadeiros, 6 Jan. 1895, A. Glaziou 20990 (S (in part), UC (in part), US (in part)). MINAS GERAIS: Minas Geraes, 1892, A. Glaziou 19093 (NY); Serro do Cipó, 16 Jan. 1951, J. G. Kuhlmann & L. Edmundo 16 (MO) ; Serra do Cipó, km 115, 13 Jan. 1935, Mello Barreto 5942 (F, MICH); w/o locality (Minas Gerais), Jan. 1951, J. M. Pires & G. A. Black 2984 (NY) ; Serra da Lapa, Nov. 1824, Riedel 879 (US) . PARA: Serra do Cachimbo, 14 Dec. 1956, J. M. Pires, G. A. Black, J. J. Wurdack, & N. T. Silva 6200 (NY, US).

Discussion:

This variety is based on a number of collections which, taken as a whole, show a wide distribution in eastern and southern Brazil, mostly at elevations higher than those frequented by C. langsdorffii var. langsdorffii, and which are distinguished not only by generally smaller foliar organs but also by the larger, often diverging distal pair of leaflets. The indicated type has been chosen instead of the older Riedel 314 of Bahia, because of the rather minute stipules and slender stems of the latter.

While C. langsdorffii var. parvifoliola most nearly approaches C. langsdorffii var. langsdorffii, especially in the southern portion of Serra do Espinhaço in Minas Gerais, a small population in Serra do Cipó (Irwin 2429) was seen to intergrade quite clearly with C. tecta (Irwin 2430). The biochemical similarity in chromotographic patterns of C. langsdorffii var. parvifoliola and C. tecta (Fig. 329, and Fig. 331 and 332: G, H; and Fig. 330, Fig. 333 and 334: D, E) further indicates the close relationship of the latter species with the C. langsdorffii complex.

Pires et al. 6200, from Serra do Cachimbo on the southern border of Pará, approaches the Minas Gerais material except for its very small stipules and leaflets. But then the whole presumed northern range of this variety is inadequately defined owing to the paucity of collections from that area.

Distribution:Brazil South America| Bahia Brazil South America| Ceará Brazil South America| Minas Gerais Brazil South America| Goiás Brazil South America| São Paulo Brazil South America| Pará Brazil South America|