Monographs Details: Pinus oocarpa var. oocarpa
Authority: Farjon, Aljos K. & Styles, Brian T. 1997. Pinus (Pinaceae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 75: 1-291. (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Pinaceae
Synonyms:Pinus oocarpa var. oocarpoides (Lindl. ex Loudon) Endl., Pinus oocarpa subsp. manzanoi (Martínez) Silba
Description:Variety Description - Tree, medium to tall, height to 30-35 m, dbh to 100-125 cm. Leaves in fascicles of 5 (sometimes also 3-4 on trees with mostly 5), straight, rigid or less commonly lax, (17-)20-25(-30) cm X 0.8-14 mm. Seed cones 5-8(-10) X 5-9(-12) cm when open. Seed scales ca. 100-130.

Discussion:

Distribution and Ecology: It has the largest range of all of the pines in our region and is especially abundant in Mesoamerica. It extends over a NW-SE distance of ca. 3000 km and consequently is found under very different ecological conditions. This is expressed in its altitudinal range, (200-)500-2300(-2700) m, and in the variation of annual precipitation, 700-3000 mm. These variations are greatest in Mesoamerica and are less pronounced particularly in the far NW part of the range. Especially precipitation levels increase toward the southeast. Yet its optimum is at middle elevation (1000-1500 m) with abundant rainfall. Seasonality is mainly expressed in a (long) dry season from October to June in much of its range. Nearly everywhere, fire is an integral part of the ecosystem, but man-made fires, often deliberate, add substantially to the frequency with which they occur. Pinus oocarpa has semi-serotinous cones and is adapted to tíre, at least at natural frequencies. It occurs in usually open woodland or forest, often in pure stands or as a constituent of pine-oak woodland. Other pines commonly associated with it are P. engelmannii, P. leiophylla, and P. douglasiana in the northwest and P. ntaximinoi, P. devoniana, and P. tecununíanii to the southeast. If fires are less frequent, there can be an understorey of shrubs with, e.g., Calliandra, Acacia, Leucaena, Hybosema, Byrsonima, and Leucothoe, but often the burning favours Pteridium aquilinum or grasses.

Phenology: Pollen is released in February-March.
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