Monographs Details: Cyphomandra ovum-fringillae Dunal
Authority: Bohs, Lynn A. 1994. Cyphomandra (Solanaceae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 63: 154. (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Solanaceae
Description:Species Description - Herb or shrub 1-2 m tall. Branches slender, densely puberulent and also sparsely to moderately pilose with hairs ca. 1-3 mm long. Leaf blades simple to ternately compound, subcoriaceous, acute at apex, moderately to densely puberulent adaxially and abaxially; petioles densely puberulent and also sparsely to moderately pilose with hairs 1-3 mm long. Trunk leaves ternately compound, the blade 3.5-7 cm long, ca. 1.5-2.5 cm wide, the terminal leaflet elliptic, 3.5-7 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide, the base truncate, sessile, the lateral leaflets 1-3 cm long, 0.4-2 cm wide, sessile; petioles 1.5-2 cm long. Crown leaves 4 per sympodial unit, the blade simple, ovate-elliptic, sinuate at margin, 1.5-6 cm long, 0.5-3 cm wide, length:width ratio 1.5-2(3): 1, the base truncate to cuneate or subcordate with basal lobes less than 0.5 cm long; petioles 0.2-2 cm long. Inflorescence unbranched, 6-15-flowered, 2.55.5 cm long; peduncle (0.3-) 1-2.5 cm long; rachis 1.5-4.5 cm long; pedicels 3-10 mm long, 10-12 mm long in fruit, 1-5 mm apart, articulated near the base, leaving pedicellar remnants up to 1 mm long; peduncle, rachis, and pedicels densely puberulent. Flower buds ellipsoidal, obtuse at apex. Calyx chartaceous, densely puberulent, the radius 3-4 mm, the lobes 2-3 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, deltate to narrowly triangular, acute. Corolla violet, somewhat fleshy, campanulate, the radius ca. 11 mm, the tube 4 mm long, the lobes triangular, ca. 7 mm long, 3 mm wide, moderately to densely puberulent abaxially, adaxially puberulent toward apex, glabrous toward base, the margin tomentose, the apex acute. Anther thecae yellow (fide Dunal), elliptic-ovate, 3-4 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, the pores directed distally; connective reddish (fide Dunal), lanceolate, 4-5 mm long, 1 mm wide, abaxially slightly shorter than thecae at apex, exceeding them at base by ca. 1 mm, adaxially absent. Ovary glabrous; style cylindrical, glabrous, not dilated distally, ca. 5 mm long, 1 mm in diam., exserted beyond stamens; stigma truncate, 1 mm in diam. Fruit ellipsoidal to globose, obtuse at apex, ca. 1 cm long, 1 cm in diam., glabrous, the color when ripe unknown; mesocarp with stone cell aggregates; seeds unknown.

Discussion:This species is known only from two collections from eastern Brazil. It is a diminutive species, probably a small shrub under 2 m tall with leaves apparently less than 7 cm long. The lower leaves are ternately compound, and the entire plant is covered with a dense pubescence. In many respects it resembles Cyphomandra comigera in section Cyphomandropsis, but C. ovum-fringillae has an indumentum composed exclusively of unbranched hairs, whereas that of C. comigera is made up of dendritically branched trichomes. Cyphomandra ovum-fringillae may have affinities with C. pendula and C. benensis because of its compound leaves, densely pubescent foliage, and pubescent corolla.

It is difficult to ascertain the precise structure of the flowers and mature fruits from the scanty material available. Efforts should be made to collect additional representatives of this species. Only then can a critical assessment be made of the characters of C. ovum-fringillae and its placement in relation to other species in the genus.

Dunal (1852) cites the specimens of Blanchet 2857 in the DeCandolle, Moricand, and Boissier herbaria (all at G) as the types of C. ovum-fringillae. The specimens from the DeCandolle and Moricand herbaria are annotated by Dunal, and the specimen in the DeCandolle herbarium has been chosen as the lectotype. Dunal’s protologue gives the collection locality as “Serra Acuma," but the correct locality is probably Serra Acuruá (also spelled Assuruá) in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The discrepancy is perhaps due to the illegible handwriting on the specimens.

Sendtner (1846) cited Blanchet 2857, the type of C. ovum-fringillae, as belonging to his species C. velloziana, a nom. nov. for Solanum elegans Vellozo, but the characters of Blanchet’s herbarium specimens do not resemble those of Vellozo’s illustration. For additional notes on C. velloziana, see DOUBTFUL NAMES.
Distribution:Bahia Brazil South America| Pernambuco Brazil South America| Brazil South America|