Monographs Details: Cyphomandra heterophylla Taub.
Authority: Bohs, Lynn A. 1994. Cyphomandra (Solanaceae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 63: 154. (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Solanaceae
Synonyms:Cyphomandra betacea var. velutina Dunal
Description:Species Description - Shrub or possibly small tree ca. 2 m tall. Branches succulent, moderately to densely puberulent. Leaf blades simple or pinnately compound, somewhat succulent, acute to acuminate at apex, moderately to densely puberulent adaxially and abaxially; petioles moderately to densely puberulent. Trunk leaves 5-11-pinnate, the blade ca. 20 cm long, ca. 13-18 cm wide, the terminal leaflet elliptic, 9.5-12 cm long, 3.5-5.5 cm wide, the base cuneate to shallowly cordate, the petiolule 8-11 mm long, the lateral leaflets 3-11 cm long, 1.5-3.5 cm wide, the petiolules 2-5 mm long; petiole 4-5 cm long. Crown leaves 3 per sympodial unit, simple or 3-9-pinnate; if simple, the blade elliptic-ovate, 3-9 cm long, 2-6 cm wide, the length:width ratio 1-1.5:1, the base shallowly cordate with basal lobes ca. 0.5(-l) cm long; if compound, the blade 6-17 cm long, 6.514 cm wide, the terminal leaflet ovate or elliptic, 4.5-11 cm long, 1.5-7 cm wide, the base cuneate to truncate or shallowly cordate, the petiolule 5-15 mm long, the lateral leaflets (1-)2.5-8 cm long, 0.5-3.5 cm wide, the petiolules 1-5 mm long; petioles 1-6 cm long. Inflorescence unbranched or forked, 10-30-flowered, 2-6 cm long; peduncle 1-4 cm long; rachis 1-4 cm long; pedicels 10-15(-30) mm long, ca. 20(-45) mm long in fruit, 0-5 mm apart, articulated at the base, leaving prominent scars on the rachis; peduncle, rachises, and pedicels sparsely to moderately puberulent. Flower buds globose, obtuse at apex. Calyx fleshy, glabrate to sparsely puberulent, the radius 3-5(-11) mm, the lobes 1.5-2.5 (-7) mm long, 2-2.5(-4) mm wide, deltate, obtuse. Corolla purple, coriaceous to fleshy, campanulate to stellate, the radius ca. 10-20 mm, the tube 3-5 mm long, the lobes narrowly triangular, 8-15 mm long, 3-5 mm wide, glabrous to moderately puberulent abaxially, especially toward apices, densely papillose adaxially, the margin minutely tomentose, the apex acute. Anther thecae oblong, the color unknown, 3-4 mm long, 2 mm wide, the pores directed distally and laterally; connective oblong, the color unknown, 4-5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, abaxially exceeding thecae at apex by ca. 0.5 mm, equal to them at base, adaxially absent. Ovary glabrous; style glabrous to sparsely puberulent, cylindrical, strongly dilated apically, 4-5 mm long, 1 mm in diam., exserted slightly (ca. 1 mm) beyond stamens; stigma expanded, truncate, bilobed with two apical glands, 2-3 mm in diam. Mature fruits not seen, but possibly glabrous, obtuse, and more or less globose from immature ones seen; seeds unknown.

Discussion:Cyphomandra heterophylla is closely allied to C. sycocarpa, both occupying seaside habitats of southeastern Brazil. Both species have succulent leaves, stems, and flowers, and both have the anther connective abaxially extended beyond the apices of the thecae. Cyphomandra heterophylla differs from C. sycocarpa in having puberulent leaves and stems, and pinnately compound rather than pinnately lobed leaves.

There is little information about the range or habitat preferences of C. heterophylla; it is presently known only from five collections. Efforts should be made to locate other stations for this species, and field observations are needed to clarify the relationship of C. heterophylla to the nearly sympatric and morphologically very similar C. sycocarpa.

The pinnately compound leaves and seaside habitat of C. heterophylla are reminiscent of C. comigera Dunal, but C. heterophylla differs in its floral structure and lack of dendritic pubescence. Cyphomandra comigera belongs to section Cyphomandropsis and has no obvious relationship to C. heterophylla.

The specimen of Glaziou 12097 at Copenhagen (C) bears an annotation by Taubert and has been chosen as the lectotype. According to the label data, this collection was made from plants growing in cultivation, but locality data on other gatherings of this species indicates that it is native to the seacoast region very near Glaziou’s collecting locality. Taubert’s C. heterophylla predates the same name proposed by Donnell Smith for a different species of Cyphomandra; this latter name is now considered to be a synonym of C. hartwegii.
Distribution:Brazil South America|