Monographs Details: Cyphomandra hartwegii (Miers) Walp. subsp. hartwegii
Authority: Bohs, Lynn A. 1994. Cyphomandra (Solanaceae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 63: 154. (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Solanaceae
Synonyms:Pionandra hartwegii Miers, Cyphomandra splendens Dunal, Cyphomandra heterophylla Donn.Sm., Cyphomandra costaricensis Donn.Sm., Cyphomandra artocarpophylla H.J.P.Winkl., Cyphomandra holtonii Hochr., Cyphomandra dendroidea Pittier, Cyphomandra naranjilla Pittier, Cyphomandra dolichorhachis Bitter, Cyphomandra mollicella Standl.
Description:Subspecies Description - Stems, petioles, and inflorescence axes glabrous to densely puberulent, rarely pubescent, sometimes also sparsely to moderately pilose. Leaf blades glabrous to sparsely pilose and sparsely to moderately glandular-puberulent adaxially, especially on veins, glabrous to densely puberulent abaxially. Inflorescence unbranched or branched, 25-100+-flowered. Calyx glabrous to puberulent or pubescent, the radius 2-5(-8) mm, the lobes 1-2(-6) mm long. Corolla radius 10-25 mm, the lobes 10-23 mm long, glabrous to puberulent abaxially, glabrous to tomentose adaxially, especially toward apices. Anther thecae (3.5-)5-9 mm long, 1-2 mm wide; connective (3.5-)5-9 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, adaxially present or absent. Style (4-)6-10 mm long, 0.3-1 mm in diam., not or slightly dilated distally; stigma truncate to capitate, 0.3-1 mm in diam. Fruit ellipsoidal, ovoid, or globose, 3-5 (-7) cm long, 3-4(-6) cm in diam. Seeds 4-7 mm long, 3.5-5 mm wide.

Discussion:Cyphomandra hartwegii is sporadically cultivated in Central and South America for its edible fruits. They are eaten raw, sweetened and made into preserves or juices, or candied in syrup. A report that the fruits are red and toxic when ripe (Cazalet & Pennington 5026) is probably erroneous. In Chiriqui, Panama, the leaves are mashed in water to treat cuts and sores (Cooper & Slater 181). The Choco Indians of eastern Panama use the crushed leaves to treat sores and swellings around the mouth (Duke 8283). Bruised leaves of this species are applied to inflamed wounds by the Colorado Indians of Ecuador (Kvist 40191). The cooked leaves are drunk for heart attacks and headaches by the Quichuas of eastern Ecuador (Cerón & Hurtado 6667). An infusion of the leaves is used in Costa Rica to cure erysipelas (Pittier, 1908). In Putumayo, Colombia, the bark of the lower stems is used as a vermifugal tea (Schultes 3652). The leaves are used to dye pots black by the Kofáns of southern Colombia (Schultes 3652; Schultes & Raffauf, 1990). The juice of the fruits and leaves is used to paint designs on pottery by the Sionas, Secoyas, and Quichas in northeastern Ecuador (Vickers 98, 196; Ceron & Hurtado 6667).

Cyphomandra hartwegii subspecies hartwegii is widely distributed in Central America and northwestern South America, generally occurring at lower elevations than subspecies ramosa. As is often the case in wide-ranging species, it is quite variable morphologically. Previous authors described many taxa on the basis of a few collections which I regard as synonyms of C. hartwegii. These entities failed to show consistent and significant variation when a large number of specimens was examined from Central and South America. A few notable trends in the variation within subspecies hartwegii are noted below, but none seem to merit taxonomic recognition.

Little morphological variation occurs in subspecies hartwegii throughout its range in Mexico and Central America. Most collections from this area have densely puberulent axes and abaxial leaf surfaces, usually simple and elongated inflorescences, large corollas with puberulent lobes, long, narrow anthers, and small globose fruits. An exception is an anomalous population from Veracruz, Mexico around Lake Catemaco. These specimens have nearly glabrous leaves, frequently bifid or branched inflorescences covered with minute stalked glands, small corollas with glabrate lobes, and short anthers only 3.5-5 mm long. Great variation exists in pubescence, inflorescence branching, and corolla and fruit size in collections from Panama south to Colombia and Ecuador. Specimens from these areas are often nearly glabrous except for some sparse, long eglandular hairs on the vegetative parts and have branched inflorescences and large ellipsoidal fruits. The type collection of C. dolichorhachis from Colombia and some specimens from western Ecuador have very large flowers (35-40 mm in diameter), large calyces with a radius of 5-8 mm that are unevenly split into lobes, and slightly expanded stigmas. Despite these anomalous features, the variation among specimens from these areas is so inconsistent that they cannot be recognized as a cohesive taxonomic unit.

The large number of synonyms of C. hartwegii subspecies hartwegii has given rise to a few nomenclatural points that deserve further discussion.

In 1899, John Donnell Smith published the name and description for C. heterophylla from Central America, now regarded as a synonym of C. hartwegii. He cited six collections from Costa Rica but designated none as the type collection. His name proved to be a later homonym of C. heterophylla Taubert from southeastern Brazil. In 1903, Smith changed the name of his species to C. costaricensis, citing his specimen 6670 and referring to his earlier description. The lectotype of this name is here designated as Donnell Smith 6670 (US), chosen from among the specimens mentioned in his protologue.

Lectotypes were also chosen for C. artocarpophylla, C. holtonii, and C. dendroidea because the location of the holotype was not specifically indicated. In all cases, the lectotype was chosen from among specimens definitely consulted by the author of the name.

Much confusion has arisen over the identity of C. splendens Dunal. Dunal’s description is based on the specimen from Geneva in which the vegetative axes and inflorescence are separated. This sheet is labeled "Solanum cordatum, Peruvia, herb. Pavon." Three isotypes also exist at MA, one of which is labeled "Solanum cordatum sp. nov." Solanum cordatum Dunal is an unpublished herbarium name. As no specific locality information is given, uncertainty exists as to the provenance of this collection. The inflorescence of the G specimen is nearly glabrous and highly branched. The flowers conform to the concept of C. hartwegii, as does Dunal’s description.

Adding to the confusion is another sheet at G also marked "Solanum cordatum Pav." as well as "C. splendens Dun.," apparently by Dunal himself. This collection (Poeppig 1845) belongs to C. obliqua rather than to C. hartwegii. Macbride (1962) later equates C. splendens and C. coriacea, the latter a synonym of C. obliqua, an error that has been followed by later authors. In accordance with Dunal’s original description and type, C. splendens is undoubtedly to be included within C. hartwegii and has no affinity with C. obliqua.

The name C. crassifolia has been erroneously applied to C. hartwegii by many authors. Cyphomandra crassifolia is an illegitimate name originally used for C. betacea; its nomenclatural status is discussed under the latter species.
Distribution:Mexico North America| Guatemala Central America| Nicaragua Central America| Panama Central America| Colombia South America| Venezuela South America| Suriname South America| Ecuador South America| Peru South America| Brazil South America| Bolivia South America| Oaxaca Mexico North America| Veracruz Mexico North America| Atlántida Honduras Central America| Honduras Central America| Comayagua Honduras Central America| Cortés Honduras Central America| Yoro Honduras Central America| Zelaya Nicaragua Central America| Nicaragua Central America| Alajuela Costa Rica Central America| Costa Rica South America| Cartago Costa Rica Central America| Guanacaste Costa Rica Central America| Heredia Costa Rica Central America| Limón Costa Rica Central America| Puntarenas Costa Rica Central America| San José Costa Rica Central America| Bocas del Toro Panamá Central America| Canal Zone Panamá Central America| Chiriquí Panamá Central America| Colón Panama Central America| Darién Panamá Central America| Panamá Panama Central America| San Blás Panama Central America| Veraguas Panama Central America| Antioquia Colombia South America| Bolívar Colombia South America| Boyacá Colombia South America| Caldas Colombia South America| Caquetá Colombia South America| César Colombia South America| Chocó Colombia South America| Córdoba Colombia South America| Cundinamarca Colombia South America| Meta Colombia South America| Nariño Colombia South America| Putumayo Colombia South America| Risaralda Colombia South America| Santander Colombia South America| Tolima Colombia South America| Valle Colombia South America| Aragua Venezuela South America| Carabobo Venezuela South America| Miranda Venezuela South America| Yaracuy Venezuela South America| Zulia Venezuela South America| French Guiana South America| Bolívar Ecuador South America| Esmeraldas Ecuador South America| Guayas Ecuador South America| Imbabura Ecuador South America| Morona-Santiago Ecuador South America| Napo Ecuador South America| El Oro Ecuador South America| Pastaza Ecuador South America| Pichincha Ecuador South America| Los Ríos Ecuador South America| Zamora-Chinchipe Ecuador South America| Huánuco Peru South America| Junín Peru South America| San Martín Peru South America| Acre Brazil South America| La Paz Bolivia South America| Pando Bolivia South America| Napo Ecuador South America|

Common Names:Fruta de agua, pepinillo, sandillo, zopilote, Contra gallinazo, monka prieto, naranjilla, regalgar, reventadera, tomate de indio, tomate del monte, tonga, tsutsucuru, venenillo, dwergtafrabon, tigriston, Ko pi, irayuyu, irayuyo, irayo panga, maluside, tomate de montaña, Tomate de monte, Tomate silvestre
Objects:Specimen - 00750729, H. Hernández G. 177, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; North America, Mexico, Oaxaca, Santa María Chimalapa
Specimen - 00750723, S. Maya J. 644, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; North America, Mexico, Oaxaca, San Miguel Chimalapa
Specimen - 02060102, J. H. Beaman 5855, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; North America, Mexico, Veracruz, Catemaco
Specimen - 00750736, G. Martinez C. 3001, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; North America, Mexico, Veracruz, San Andrés Tuxtla
Specimen - 00750727, T. L. Wendt 2692, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; North America, Mexico, Veracruz, Minatitlán
Specimen - 00750740, T. G. Yuncker 8528, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Honduras, Atlántida
Specimen - 00750742, T. G. Yuncker 6231, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Honduras, Comayagua
Specimen - 00750769, J. L. Gentry, Jr. 2890, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Costa Rica, Guanacaste
Specimen - 00750752, J. L. Gentry, Jr. 2766, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Costa Rica, Puntarenas
Specimen - 00750771, A. F. Skutch 2533, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Costa Rica, San José
Specimen - 00750770, A. F. Skutch 3957, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Costa Rica, San José
Specimen - 00750799, T. B. Croat 9016, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Panama
Specimen - 00750791, G. P. Cooper 181, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Panama, Chiriquí
Specimen - 00750792, J. A. Duke 12167(5), Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Panama, Coclé
Specimen - 00750785, W. G. D'Arcy 6156, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Panama, Colón
Specimen - 00750788, S. D. Knapp 5684, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Panama, Colón
Specimen - 00750786, R. L. Liesner 1063, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Panama, Colón
Specimen - 00750783, P. H. Allen 919, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Panama, Darién
Specimen - 00750797, W. G. D'Arcy 3958, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Panama, Panamá
Specimen - 00750795, R. L. Liesner 510, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Panama, Panamá
Specimen - 00750794, S. A. Mori 1826, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Panama
Specimen - 00750803, K. J. Sytsma 2876, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; Central America, Panama, Panamá
Specimen - 724830, O. L. Haught 4701, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Colombia, Antioquia, Mun. Chigorodó
Specimen - 724815, A. E. Lawrance 118, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Colombia, Boyacá
Specimen - 724817, F. W. Pennell 10720, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Colombia, Caldas
Specimen - 724833, O. L. Haught 3786, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Colombia, Magdalena
Specimen - 724816, E. Forero 1711, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Colombia, Chocó, Riosucio
Specimen - 724818, F. W. Pennell 4645, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Colombia, Córdoba
Specimen - 724813, O. L. Haught 2482, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Colombia, Meta
Specimen - 724834, O. L. Haught 2063, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Colombia, Santander
Specimen - 724832, R. Romero-Castañeda 5022, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Colombia, Santander
Specimen - 724898, L. Aristeguieta 4457, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Venezuela
Specimen - 724896, J. A. Steyermark 86291, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Venezuela, Miranda
Specimen - 724894, J. A. Steyermark 111200, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Venezuela, Yaracuy
Specimen - 724895, J. A. Steyermark 99899, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Venezuela, Zulia
Specimen - 724872, W. H. Camp E3675, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Ecuador
Specimen - 724862, M. T. Madison 5481, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Ecuador, Napo
Specimen - 724864, L. P. Kvist 40191, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Ecuador, Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas
Specimen - 724863, E. L. Little Jr. 6173, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Ecuador, Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, Santo Domingo de las Tsáchilas
Specimen - 00809572, G. T. Prance 11822, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Brazil, Acre, Cruzeiro do Sul
Specimen - 724795, M. H. Nee 31543, Solanum circinatum (Miers) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Bolivia, La Paz, Iturralde