Monographs Details: Cyphomandra foetida Bohs
Description:Species Description - Small tree 1-7 m tall. Branches moderately to densely glandular- and eglandular-pubescent and moderately pilose to hirsute with shining hairs up to 4 mm long. Leaf blades simple, unlobed, chartaceous, acuminate at apex, moderately to densely pilose to villous adaxially with white curled hairs, some gland-tipped, more dense on veins, more densely glandular- and eglandular-pubescent to pilose abaxially; petioles densely pubescent-pilose. Trunk leaves simple, unlobed, the blade ovate-elliptic, 20-23 cm long, 12-15 cm wide, length:width ratio ca. 1.5:1, the base cordate with basal lobes 0.5-1.5 cm long; petioles 8-12 cm long. Crown leaves 3-4 per sympodial unit, simple, unlobed, ovate to elliptic-ovate, 4-22 cm long, 3-15 cm wide, length:width ratio 1-2:1, the base truncate to cordate, sometimes oblique, with basal lobes 0.3-2 cm long; petioles 1.5-9(-14) cm long. Inflorescence unbranched or forked, (15-)20-50-flowered, 3-7(-13) cm long; peduncle 0.5-2 cm long; rachises 2-6(-11) cm long; pedicels 10-20 mm long, 25-40 mm long in fruit, 0.5-4 mm apart, articulated at or near the base, leaving pedicellar remnants up to 1 (-2) mm long; peduncle, rachises, and pedicels pubescent-pilose. Flower buds ovoid, acute-acuminate at apex. Calyx chartaceous, densely pilose and glandular, the radius 2-3 mm, the lobes 1.5-2 mm long, 1.5-2.5 mm wide, deltate, acuminate. Corolla green to yellowish green, chartaceous to membranaceous, stellate, the radius 8-12(-15) mm, the tube l-2(-4) mm long, the lobes narrowly triangular, 7-10(-14) mm long, 2-3(-4) mm wide, moderately glandular-tomentose and eglandular-villous abaxially, glabrate to sparsely pubescent adaxially especially on midrib and toward apex, the margin ciliate, the apex acute-acuminate. Anther thecae lanceolate, white or yellow, 4-5(-7) mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, the pores directed adaxially and distally; connective narrowly triangular, the color unknown, 4.5-5 (-8) mm long, 0.5-1 mm wide, abaxially equal to or slightly shorter than thecae at apex, exceeding them at base by 0.5-1 mm, adaxially usually present at base as a linear-triangular swelling ca. 1.5-3 mm long and 0.5 mm wide. Ovary glabrous to densely glandular-puberulent; style cylindrical, glabrous, not dilated distally, 5-8 mm long, 0.3-0.5 mm in diam., exserted 2-4 mm beyond stamens; stigma truncate to capitate, 0.3-0.5(-l) mm in diam. Fruit ellipsoidal or fusiform, acute at apex, 2.5-7.5 cm long, 1-3 cm in diam., densely glandular- and eglandular pilose, green when immature with green or greyish longitudinal stripes, the color when ripe unknown; mesocarp with smooth round or oval stone cell aggregates; seeds 4-5 mm long, 3-3.5 mm wide, glabrate and white-puberulent submarginally.
Discussion:Cyphomandra foetida is very similar to C. tegore. Both species have simple, cordate crown leaves, unbranched inflorescences with closely spaced pedicels leaving prominent pedicellar remnants, greenish stellate corollas, slender anthers about 5-6 mm long with the connective prolonged below the bases of the thecae, and slender cylindrical styles with small truncate stigmas. Both species are also abundantly pubescent on the axes, leaves, and fruits, but C. tegore lacks the long shining hairs present on the axes and leaves of C. foetida. The two species may also be distinguished by differences in pubescence of the corolla lobes and by the shape of the fruits: those of C. foetida are acute at the apex, whereas those of C. tegore are obtuse. Cyphomandra tegore may be further distinguished by its pinnately lobed trunk leaves, which are thus far unknown in C. foetida; however, only one specimen of C. tegore has lobed leaves, and it is not known how variable this character state might be within the species. The two species are also separated geographically, with C. foetida being found in the western Amazon and C. tegore around the mouth of the Amazon in eastern Brazil. This distinction is blurred, however, by the collection of Prance et al. 25404 from Para, Brazil, which has the long, shining hairs and acute fruits characteristic of C. foetida but falls within the geographical range of C. tegore. Additional collections of these two species may further confound their morphological and geographical distinctions and may support consideration of both as a single species.Two Ecuadorian collections included here as C. foetida exhibit a few anomalous morphological features. They conform to C. foetida in their axes and leaves clothed with long, shining hairs and simple cordiform leaves. However, they differ from the rest of the material in that the pedicels are articulated at the base and leave almost no pedicellar remnants on the rachis. The flowers are also larger in these collections, with corolla lobes up to 12-14 mm long and anthers up to about 8 mm long. The corolla lobes and vegetative parts are also not as copiously glandular-pubescent as other collections of C. foetida. The stigma is relatively broad, with a diameter of about 1 mm. Fruits are not present on either Ecuadorian collection. This element may represent a distinct species, but is included here within C. foetida until it is better collected and characterized.
Distribution:Ecuador South America
| Peru South America
| Brazil South America
| Amazonas Brazil South America
| Napo Ecuador South America
| Pastaza Ecuador South America
| Loreto Peru South America
| Madre de Dios Peru South America
| San Martín Peru South America
| Acre Brazil South America
| Pará Brazil South America
Common Names:Asnapanga, millua chuposacha, pepinillo chuposacha, siuca sacha
Objects:Specimen - 00722560, C. A. Cid Ferreira 2894, Solanum cacosmum (Bohs) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Brazil, Acre, Rio BrancoSpecimen - 00827236, S. R. Lowrie 347, Solanum cacosmum (Bohs) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Brazil, Acre, Senador GuiomardSpecimen - 00809609, G. T. Prance P25404, Solanum cacosmum (Bohs) Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta; South America, Brazil, ParáSpecimen - 00076894, J. M. Schunke-Vigo 1159, Cyphomandra foetida Bohs, Solanaceae (287.0), Magnoliophyta, isotype; South America, Peru, Huánuco, Pachitea Province