Monographs Details: Cyphomandra dolichocarpa Bitter
Description:Species Description - Small tree 2.5-5 m tall. Branches glabrous to moderately glandular- and eglandular-puberulent, becoming glabrescent. Leaf blades simple, unlobed, subcoriaceous, acute to short-acuminate at apex, glabrous or glandular-puberulent and sparsely eglandular-pubescent adaxially, more so on veins, glabrous or moderately glandular- and eglandular-puberulent abaxially; petioles glabrous or moderately to densely puberulent. Trunk leaves simple, unlobed, the blade elliptic, ca. 40 cm long, 20-22 cm wide, length: width ratio ca. 2:1, the base cuneate, often oblique, without basal lobes; petioles 6-8 cm long. Crown leaves 3 per sympodial unit, simple, unlobed, the blade elliptic, 13-30 cm long, 10-20 cm wide, length:width ratio 1.5(-2):1, the base cuneate to truncate, sometimes oblique, without basal lobes; petioles 3-12 cm long. Inflorescence unbranched or rarely forked, 15-50-flowered, 3-14 cm long; peduncle 2-4 cm long; rachis 1-10 cm long; pedicels 15-35 mm long, 40-50 mm long in fruit, 1-3 mm apart, articulated near the base, leaving pedicellar remnants ca. 1 mm long; peduncle, rachis, and pedicels glabrous or moderately glandular- and eglandular-puberulent. Flower buds narrowly ovoid, acute to acuminate at apex. Calyx fleshy, sparsely puberulent, the radius 3-4 mm, the lobes 1.5-2 mm long, 2 mm wide, obtuse, apiculate. Corolla white or greenish white, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, stellate-campanulate, the radius ca. 15 mm, the tube 2-4 mm long, the lobes narrowly triangular, 9-11 mm long, 3-4 mm wide, glabrous abaxially and adaxially, the margin tomentose to ciliate, the apex acute. Anther thecae white or purplish, lanceolate, ca. 5 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide, the pores introrse and directed distally; connective tan or cream with purple margins, lanceolate, 6-7 mm long, 1-2 mm wide, abaxially slightly shorter than thecae at apex, exceeding them at base by 1 mm, adaxially absent. Ovary glabrous; style cylindrical, glabrous, not dilated distally, 6-8 mm long, 0.3-1 mm in diam., exserted 2 mm beyond stamens; stigma clavate or truncate, 0.3-1 mm in diam. Fruit ellipsoidal or fusiform, acuminate at apex, glabrous, 5-9 cm long, 2-3 cm in diam., the color when ripe unknown, but probably yellow; mesocarp without stone cell aggregates; seeds unknown.
Discussion:Attempts should be made to find new localities for this rare species from Central America. All extant collections are from Panama and date from after 1975. Cyphomandra dolichocarpa is thus not covered in the treatment of the Solanaceae for the Flora of Panama (D’Arcy, 1973). The species can be identified from Bitter’s detailed Latin description and from photographs of the holotype (destroyed in Berlin during World War II) showing the distinctive elongated fruits and elliptic leaves with cuneate bases. No isotypes have been located, so a neotype has been chosen. The Panamanian collections agree with Bitter’s protologue except for the glabrate rather than pubescent leaves and stem, and the different structure of the gynoecium. Bitter describes the style as being obviously thickened into the subpeltate stigma nearly 1.5 mm in diameter. The Panamanian collections show no trace of this thickened style and have very small stigmas. In spite of these discrepancies, I strongly suspect that the Panamanian collections conform to Bitter’s C. dolichocarpa, so they have been included here under that name.From the scanty material available, it appears that C. dolichocarpa is related to the C. hartwegii group. The narrow, tapered anthers and truncate stigma of C. dolichocarpa are characteristic of the C. hartwegii complex. Cyphomandra dolichocarpa is most similar to C. tobagensis, which also has elliptic leaves with cuneate bases and pointed fruits. However, the leaves of C. dolichocarpa are larger than those of C. tobagensis and the fruits of C. dolichocarpa are glabrous rather than puberulent.
Distribution:Costa Rica South America
| Panama Central America
| Chiriquí Panamá Central America
| Coclé Panamá Central America