Monographs Details: Frullanoides
Authority: Gradstein, S. Robbert. 1994. Lejeuneaceae: Ptychantheae, Brachiolejeuneae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 62: 216. (Published by NYBG Press)
Scientific Name:Frullanoides
Synonyms:Ptychocoleus, Frullanoides densifolia subsp. grandidentata (L.Clark) van Slageren, Brachiolejeunea bahamensis A.Evans, Frullanoides bahamensis (A.Evans) van Slageren
Description:Genus Description - Plants 1.5-12 cm long × 1-3 mm wide, green to black when alive, usually darkish brown to black in the dried condition, creeping or ascending, rarely pendent. Branching Frullania- or Lejeunea-type, irregular or forked due to paired, floriferous innovations; microphyllous branches lacking. Stems with a hyalodermis, epidermal cells larger (at least dorsally) and much thinner-walled than the medullary cells, dorsal epidermal cells as large as or larger than the ventral epidermal cells, cells walls with brownish pigmentation especially in the medulla; ventral merophyte 4-10(-14) cell rows wide. Leaves convoluted when dry, apex rounded to acute-apiculate, margins entire or toothed (Frullanoides laciniatiflora); leaf cells elongate, walls often with darkish pigmentation, trigones cordate, small to mediumsized, intermediate thickenings usually scarce, oil bodies homogeneous, Massula-type, ocelli lacking. Lobules l/3-2/3× lobe length, never reduced, inflated along the keel, flattened towards the free margin, with (3-)5-9(-11) teeth; hyaline papilla positioned on the inner side of the lobule below the proximal base of the first tooth. Underleaves 3-6× stem width, margins entire, bases auriculate or rounded, insertion line arched or almost straight; underleaf base at the rhizoid disc bistratose, with 4-8 superior central cells. Androecia on elongated shoots, bracts resembling leaves but smaller, lobules more strongly inflated, epistatic or hypostatic (F. corticalis), underleaves present throughout; antheridia 1-2 per bract. Gynoecia on main stems or on branches, always with two pycnolejeuneoid subfloral innovations, bracts in one series, larger than leaves, with rounded to apiculate apex and entire or toothed margins, the keel usually with a conspicuous wing (inserted partially on the associated innovation), lobules l/3-3/4× lobe length, bracteoles undivided or short bifid, entire or toothed. Perianths with 5-11 smooth, rounded keels. Sporophyte: seta articulate; elaters 30-68 per capsule (van Slageren, 1985); otherwise as in the tribe. Vegetative reproduction not observed.

Discussion:Frullanoides is a well-defined genus, with relationships to Acrolejeunea and to the Asiatic genus Trocholejeunea. The presence of large quantities of pinguisanine-type sesquiterpenes is a characteristic chemical feature of the species of these genera (Gradstein et al., 1988). The species of Frullanoides can be readily distinguished from Acrolejeunea by their somewhat blackish pigmentation, auriculate underleaves (except F. corticalis and F. bahamensis), distinctly swollen male bracts with (l-)2 antheridia and the presence of innovations. Moreover, the flagelliform branches producing caducous leaves, characteristic of neotropical Acrolejeunea, are never found in Frullanoides.

The genus Trocholejeunea is considerably different from Frullanoides based on characters of both gametophyte and sporophyte: the lack of blackish secondary pigmentation, the unique, Frullania-type innovation, the scarcely swollen male bracts as in Acrolejeunea, and the seta which is not articulate and is made up of more than 20 cell rows (as in Bryopteris and Marchesinia). The occurrence of a fossil species of Trocholejeunea in Eocenic amber of Europe (Trocholejeunea contorta (Goppert & Berendt) Grolle & Gradst.) shows that Trocholejeunea is one of the oldest extant genera of Lejeuneaceae.

Frullanoides resembles Mastigolejeunea in habit. For differences see under the latter.

Terpenoids: pinguisanines.

Distribution and Ecology; Frullanoides Raddi is the largest genus of Ptychanthoideae in tropical America. All seven species recognized in the genus (van Slageren, 1985) occur in tropical America; one of them, F. tristis, extends into the palaeotropics. This treatment follows the revision by van Slageren. The species of Frullanoides are drought tolerant and grow on bark, rock or soil, from sea level to the forest line, in dry or moist woodlands, scrubby vegetations, savannas, plantations, and along road sides. When growing in virgin rainforest, the species are usually restricted to to the crowns of trees