Monographs Details: Campylopus cavifolius Mitt.
Authority: Frahm, Jan-Peter. 1991. Dicranaceae: Campylopodioideae, Paraleucobryoideae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 54: 1-238. (Published by NYBG Press)
Synonyms:Campylopus apollinairei Thér.
Description:Species Description - One of the largest species of Campylopus, plants to 10 cm high or more, yellowish green above, brownish below, in wet habitats darker colored to even blackish, in tufts. Stems equally foliate with erect spreading leaves, tomentose below. Leaves 10-12 mm long, narrow lanceolate, from an ovate base gradually contracted into a very long, fine, smooth tip, the narrow leaf tip as long as the basal part of the leaf. Costa at leaf base ill defined, gradually intergrading into the lamina, excurrent, in transverse section with large ventral hyalocysts, taking half or more of the thickness of the leaf, without dorsal stereids, gradually narrowed into the lamina, ridged at back in the upper part of the leaf. Alar cells weakly developed, hyaline. Basal laminal cells rectangular, thin-walled, 10-13 × 19-45 µm, elongate and narrow at margins. Upper laminal cells oval to elongate oval, incrassate, 6-10 × 22-45 µm, ca. 4-6:1. Sporophyte pseudolateral. Seta 15 mm long, curved, brownish. Capsule 2 mm long, light brown to dark brown in age, erect, symmetric, cylindrical, furrowed when empty. Calyptra fringed at base.

Discussion:Campylopus cavifolius is often associated with C. pittieri. Both species even grow in mixed tufts and can hardly be distinguished macroscopically. Campylopus pittieri is usually paler (leucobryoid), especially when dried up, and has shorter leaf tips. Microscopically C. cavifolius is distinguished by smaller ventral hyalocysts of the costa and a different transverse section of the costa. This demonstrates that species of different phylogenetic origin have occupied the same ecological niche and have developed homologous adaptations such as growth in cushions, dense tomentum, large ventral hyalocysts in the costa, hyaline basal laminal cells or oval upper laminal cells.

Distribution and Ecology: Terrestrial in paramos, often in large tufts in wet depressions and around ponds, often associated with Sphagnum spp., rarely on wet rocks, in the drier northern and southern part of its range in subalpine shrubs and forests, in Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, in elevations between 3400 and 4300 m.

Distribution:Panama Central America| Colombia South America| Arauca Colombia South America| Boyacá Colombia South America| Cauca Colombia South America| Cundinamarca Colombia South America| Meta Colombia South America| Venezuela South America| Mérida Venezuela South America| Ecuador South America| Carchi Ecuador South America| Imbabura Ecuador South America| Napo Ecuador South America| Peru South America| Ancash Peru South America| Bolivia South America| Cochabamba Bolivia South America|