Monographs Details: Chrysophyllum venezuelanense (Pierre) T.D.Penn.
Authority: Pennington, Terence D. 1990. Sapotaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 52: 1-750. (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Sapotaceae
Synonyms:Cornuella venezuelanensis Pierre, Chrysophyllum excelsum Huber, Lucuma lucentifolia Standl., Lucuma pentasperma Standl., Pouteria lucentifolia (Standl.) Baehni, Gambeya excelsa (Huber) Aubrév., Pouteria petenensis Lundell, Pouteria mayana Lundell, Pouteria dibrachiata Lundell, Achras mayana (Lundell) Lundell
Description:Species Description - Tree; young shoots minutely appressed puberulous at first, soon glabrous, lenticellate, smooth, greyish-brown. Leaves spaced or loosely clustered at the shoot apex, spirally arranged, 9.2-25(-30) × 3.7-8(-10.8) cm, oblanceolate to elliptic, apex shortly broadly attenuate, obtuse or rounded, base usually acute or narrowly attenuate, less frequently obtuse or rounded, usually chartaceous, less frequently thinly coriaceous, glabrous; venation eucamptodromous, marginal vein absent, midrib not raised on the upper surface, secondary veins 8-12(-16) pairs, slightly convergent or parallel, arcuate, usually slightly raised on the upper surface, and strongly raised on the lower surface; intersecondaries small or absent; tertiaries mostly horizontal, sometimes joined by an open reticulum. Petiole 0.5-4 cm long, usually channelled, appressed puberulous at first, soon glabrous. Fascicles axillary and in the axils of fallen leaves, 2-10-flowered. Pedicel 2-7 mm long, sparsely puberulous, hairs mostly appressed. Flowers unisexual (plant dioecious). Sepals five, 2-3(-4) mm long, ovate, apex obtuse or rounded, appressed puberulous to subglabrous outside, usually appressed puberulous to sericeous inside, or rarely glabrous, margin ciliate. Corolla 2-4.5 mm long, tube longer than the lobes in male flower, about equalling lobes in female; lobes five, shortly and broadly oblong, apex truncate or rounded, glabrous, margin usually ciliate. Stamens five, fixed in the lower half of the corolla tube; filaments 0.75-2.5 mm long, not geniculate, glabrous; anthers 1-1.25 mm long, ovate-lanceolate, apiculate, glabrous; stamens or at least anthers absent in female flowers. Staminodes usually absent, occasionally represented by five minute vestiges. Ovary ovoid to conical, five-locular, densely to sparsely pubescent; style 1-2 mm long after anthesis; glabrous; style-head simple, capitate or minutely lobed. Fruit 4.5-5.5 cm long, ovoid or globose, apex rounded, base truncate or depressed, drying pale greyish or pale brown, thin outer wall shrivelling or contracting on drying, smooth but densely and finely scaly-lenticellate, glabrous. Seeds several, 2.5-3 cm long, strongly laterally compressed, testa, smooth, shining, 0.75-1.25 mm thick; scar narrow adaxial, extending the length of the seed, 2-4 mm wide; embryo with thin foliaceous cotyledons and long exserted radicle, surrounded by copious endosperm. Field characters. A tree to 40 m high and 60 cm diam. but often flowering as a small treelet of 3-4 m. Small buttresses are sometimes present. The bark of mature individuals is greyish-white, smooth or finely fissured, and the slash yellowish-brown, usually with a small amount of white rather watery, tasteless exudate. Horizontally spreading branches in whorls of 5-6 are a feature of young individuals. Flowers pale green, sometimes sweetly scented, fruit yellow, hardskinned and green, sometimes sweetly scented, fruit yellow, hard-skinned and prominently lenticellate. Flowering Feb to Jul throughout the range, with a second period in Ecuador Sep to Nov. The fruit is slow to mature and may be present throughout the year.

Discussion:

When completely mature the fruit is edible, though rather insipid.

Relationships.

Chrysophyllum venezuelanense is similar to C. lucentifolium and shares a large part of its range, and the two species are frequently confused. They share a generally similar leaf shape, venation and colour, and inflorescence and flower size. However, there are several small but consistent differences which enable them to be separated.

Chrysophyllum venezuelanense: Secondary veins 8-12(-16) pairs, higher order venation forming a lax reticulum, petiole usually channelled, leaf base not decurrent, calyx usually appressed puberulous inside, corolla lobes usually ciliate, tube equalling or longer than the lobes, stamens inserted in lower half of corolla tube, fruit densely and finely lenticellate, drying greyish or pale brown, shrinking and contracting when dry.

Chrysophyllum lucentifolium: Secondary veins (8-) 13-20 pairs, higher order venation forming a fine reticulum, petiole flat, leaf base decurrent, calyx glabrous inside, corolla lobes not ciliate, tube shorter than lobes, stamens inserted near top of corolla tube, fruit not lenticellate, smooth or coarsely tuberculate, drying black, not shrinking when dry.

This species has not been associated with Chrysophyllum (except by Huber) due to lack of flowering material. There is no doubt, however, that Cornuella venezuelanensis Pierre belongs here, and it is the same species to which the name Pouteria lucentifolia has been applied throughout Central America.

Huber described C. excelsum from cultivated material growing at the Museu Goeldi, Belem, Brazil, known locally as "sorva do Peru." The local name suggests the origin of this plant, and it is, in fact, a close match for material of this species collected recently in Amazonian Peru and Ecuador.

Distribution and Ecology: Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Costa Rica, Panama, western S America (Pacific and Amazonian slopes of the Andes) to Bolivia, northern S America (Venezuela and French Guiana). Introduced and possibly naturalized in Brazil (only two collections- Kuhlmann 21991 Amazonas, Altamira, and Capucho 567, Para, Tapajos, Boa Vista are not certainly introduced). A species of wet lowland rainforest (selva alta perennifolia) in Mexico, Costa Rica and elsewhere, but also extending to other forest types subject to more seasonal variation. In Peten, Guatemala, it is present in evergreen seasonal forest dominated by Manilkara zapota, and in Panama, Colombia, Ecuador and N Venezuela it occurs in montane rainforest and cloud forest up to 1200 m altitude.Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Costa Rica, Panama, western S America (Pacific and Amazonian slopes of the Andes) to Bolivia, northern S America (Venezuela and French Guiana). Introduced and possibly naturalized in Brazil (only two collections- Kuhlmann 21991 Amazonas, Altamira, and Capucho 567, Para, Tapajos, Boa Vista are not certainly introduced). A species of wet lowland rainforest (selva alta perennifolia) in Mexico, Costa Rica and elsewhere, but also extending to other forest types subject to more seasonal variation. In Peten, Guatemala, it is present in evergreen seasonal forest dominated by Manilkara zapota, and in Panama, Colombia, Ecuador and N Venezuela it occurs in montane rainforest and cloud forest up to 1200 m altitude.

Distribution:Mexico North America| Guatemala Central America| Belize Central America| Panama Central America| Costa Rica South America| Bolivia South America| Venezuela South America| French Guiana South America| Brazil South America| Amazonas Brazil South America| Pará Brazil South America| Mexico North America| Petén Guatemala Central America| Colombia South America| Ecuador South America|

Common Names:Caniste de montana, Chupón negro, chupón riso, guajara, jagüilla, matasano, nupi, palo de sobo, platano, sapote de monte, sapote apestoso, sapotilla, sebul, shato, sorva do Peru, taco, taparon, trompillo de montana, wild zapote, zapote de chango, zapote de mico, zolive