Monographs Details: Pilocarpus giganteus Engl.
Authority: Kaastra, Roelof C. 1982. A monograph of the Pilocarpinae (Rutaceae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 33: 1-198. (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Rutaceae
Synonyms:Pilocarpus macrocarpus Engl.
Description:Species Description - Shrub 1.5-4 m tall, indumentum, if any, yellow-brown, 0.05-0.2 mm; branchlets 7-15 mm in diam., grayish-brown, minutely pubescent when young. Leaves alternate, subverticillate, simple; petiole semiterete, 1.5-15 mm long and ca. 3-4 mm thick, minutely pubescent; blade narrowly obovate, (11-)20-48 × (3-)4-10 cm, tapering into the narrowly cuneate base, ± acuminate or rarely obtuse at apex, the very tip obtuse and shallowly emarginate or retuse, margin plane or (sub)revolute, the blade chartaceous, dull grayish-green on both sides, glabrous when adult, venation brochidodromous, ± prominent, costa prominulous or plane above, very prominent below. Racemes several, erect or pendulous, inserted axially, laterally among or below the leaves, 10-15 × 1 cm at the opening of the first flowers, but the part that has finished flowering enlarging immediately to become up to 40 × 3 cm in fruit, minutely pubescent; rachis 1-2 mm in diam., in fruit to 4 mm in diam., becoming transversely striped due to cracks; bracts very broadly triangular, ca. 0.5-0.8 × 0.8-0.9 mm; pedicels ascending to spreading, 2-3 mm long and 0.5 mm thick, in fruit to 3-11 mm long and 1.5 mm thick; bractlets 2, alternately inserted at variable height. Flowers 6-7.5 mm in diam.; calyx 5-lobed, 0.6-1.2 mm high; lobes valvate to subquincuncial, depressedly ovate or triangular, 0.5-0.6 × 0.8-1.4 mm, roundish to acute at apex, thickly coriaceous, minutely pubescent without; petals subvalvate, 2.8-3.5 × 1.8-2 mm, the apex inflexed through 0.4-0.5 mm, margin slightly undulate, thinly coriaceous, semitransparent, yellow-green, becoming purplish, adaxially slightly keeled to wards tip, abaxially minutely pubescent or sometimes subglabrous, venation parallel to subactinodromous; filaments truncate, firm, 2.3-2.5 mm long and 0.4-0.5 mm thick, glabrous; anthers subcircular to ovate in outline, recurved, 0.9-1.1 × 0.9-1 mm, with a dorsal ovate gland; disc ± 10-lobed, 0.5-1 mm high and 2.2-2.7 mm in diam., glabrous; carpels 0.7-0.9 mm high, densely minutely pubescent, with internal glands; style inserted midway on the carpels, 0.4 mm long, the united part 0.1 mm long but to 1 mm after anthesis; stigma capitate, 0.30.4 × 0.6-0.8 mm. Mericarps subobovate in profile, (10-) 15-16(-19) × (8-) 10-12(-15) mm, dorso-apically rounded, the very apex obtuse, notched or not, densely minutely pubescent, with glands to 0.3 mm in diam.; seeds subovoid, ca. 10.5-11 × 6-6.5 × 5-5.8 mm, flat at base, the ventral axis ± straight, rounded at tip, the micropyle below the tip, slightly keeled on the back, testa brown, finely colliculate with interspaces 0.1 mm; hilum ca. 3-4.5 × 1-1.5 mm; cotyledons greenish-creamish, slightly unequal with ears 1 mm long; radicle ca. 1.1 mm long, enclosed between the ears; plumule 0.5 mm, strigillose like the radicle.

Discussion:Pilocarpus macrocarpus was based only on an inflorescence with flowers and fruits. Although Engler supposed it to be near to P. Wedelianus, it has more in common with P. giganteus: the inflorescence is lateral, not terminal as in P. Wedelianus; perianth, ovary, and fruits are pubescent, not glabrous; leaves and racemes of the isotype are like those of P. giganteus. The infructescence is curved near the base; this indicates a pendulous position as in P. giganteus. The mericarps however, are somewhat larger: to 19 × 15 × 7 mm. Because all other characters agree well with P. giganteus I reduce P. macrocarpus to synonymy under this species.

Planchon (1875) apparently based his description of Jaborandi, viz. the fruit and one of the inflorescences, partly on the present species.

Pereira 7255 is entirely glabrous except for the perules. The bracts and calyx are ciliate.

The specimens from São Paulo show some dorsal strigae 0.1-0.2 mm on the anthers.
Distribution:Brazil South America| Minas Gerais Brazil South America| São Paulo Brazil South America| Rio de Janeiro Brazil South America|