Monographs Details: Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl
Kaastra, Roelof C. 1982. A monograph of the Pilocarpinae (Rutaceae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 33: 1-198. (Published by NYBG Press
Description:Species Description - Shrub or small tree 2-8 m tall, (8-20 m tall according to reports from Venezuela), trunk narrow in diam., bark smooth and dark grayish; branchlets 4-8 mm in diam., dull grayish-brown, shining when young; perules of terminal buds ampulliform, rather abruptly terminating in a long, blunt-pointed tip to 1 mm long. Leaves alternate, often crowded and subopposite at the ends of the branches, imparipinnate or rarely paripinnate l-2(-3)-jugate, or 1-3-foliolate, with usually stalked leaflets, occasionally simple, 8-23(-32) cm long; petiole (semi-)terete, often slightly winged, varying from 0.5-6(-l 1) cm, 1-2(-3) mm in diam.; the wings to 0.4 mm broad; rachis 3-5(-7.5) cm long, in apical leaves 1-2.5 cm, wings usually broader than those of the petiole; petiolules 0-6(- 11) mm, those of terminal leaflets to 35 mm; leaflet blades (narrowly) elliptic to slightly obovate, rarely some ovate, 4-16(-30) × 1.5-9.5(-11.5) cm, shortly attenuate at base, (terminal leaflets also to long-attenuate), base of lateral leaflets ± unequal, obtuse or rounded at apex, sometimes slightly acuminate, the very tip emarginate or less frequently retuse, margin ± revolute; leaflet blades (sub)coriaceous or chartaceous, dull green, paler beneath, venation brochidodromous to camptodromous, prominent or plane on both sides, midvein plane above. Racemes usually solitary, subterminal, erect, 5-50 × 3.5-4(-5) cm, usually 10-25 cm long, rather loosely flowered with numerous flowers, mostly glabrous, or minutely pubescent with spreading hairs 0.05-0.1 (-0.2) mm long; rachis 1.2-3 mm thick at base; bracts broadly or depressedly triangular, 0.5-0.8 × ca. 0.5 mm; pedicels alternate, rarely some subopposite, inserted at 45-90°, 8-21 mm long and 0.4-0.7 mm thick, in fruit up to 20(-26) mm long and 1 mm thick; bractlets 2, alternate, inserted in the upper part of the pedicel, close to the calyx or not, 0.3-0.6 × 0.6-1 mm, tufted or not with hairs to 0.2 mm long. Flowers 7.5-9(-9.2) mm in diam.; calyx 5-lobed, ca. 0.6-0.7 mm high; lobes separate-valvate, depressedly triangular or semicircular, 0.2-0.6 × 1-1.7 mm, rounded at apex, coriaceous, glabrous or rarely subglabrous; petals subvalvate, 3.2-4(-4.5?) × 1.8-2.8 mm, apex inflexed through 0.6-0.7 mm, thickly coriaceous, carinate and clearly impressed above, the keel ca. 1-2 mm long and 0.3-0.4 mm high, dull above, ± shining beneath, glabrous, venation parallel to actinodromous; filaments somewhat adnate to the disc, somewhat flattened, trigonous at base, slightly indented laterally, subulate towards tip, 1.7-2.2(-2.8) × 0.3-0.4(-0.6) mm, glabrous; anthers dorsifixed above the middle, heart-shaped, 1-1.5 × 0.9-1.2 mm, pale yellow, with a dorso-apical, oblong gland; disc equalling the ovary or lower, 0.3 mm thick and 2-3.5 mm in diam., plicate, surrounding the base of the filaments, tuberculate in fruit, glabrous; carpels competely adnate to the disc or only proximally, ca. 0.7-0.9 mm high, usually not projecting beyond the disc at anthesis, glabrous; ovules 2, superposed; style inserted just below the tips of the carpels, clavate, 0.2-0.3 mm long and 0.2-0.5 mm thick, sometimes not reaching beyond the ovary, up to 1.5 mm long after anthesis, glabrous; stigma clavate, 0.2-0.3 × 0.4-0.5 mm. Mericarps subobovate in outline with rather straight ventral axis, 9-12 × 8-9 mm, dorso-apically rounded, obtuse or rounded at apex, slightly mucronate at the very tip, punctate with glands to 0.4 mm in diam., glabrous, dehiscent up to 1/2 or 2/3 below tip; seed 1 per mericarp, discharged immediately when ripe, kidney-shaped, 6-9 × 5-7 × 45 mm, flattened at base and obtuse at apex, slightly carinate dorsally; testa black-brown, finely reticulate-colliculate with interspaces 0.04-0.05 mm, slightly irregularly wrinkled; hilum tear-shaped, 2-3.5 × 0.7-1.4 mm; cotyledons ± unequal with ears 0.6-1.5 mm long, radicle 0.5-0.8 mm long, and plumule 0.1 mm long.