Monographs Details: Esenbeckia grandiflora Mart. var. grandiflora
Authority: Kaastra, Roelof C. 1982. A monograph of the Pilocarpinae (Rutaceae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 33: 1-198. (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Rutaceae
Synonyms:Polembryum jussieui Schott, Colythrum grandiflorum (Mart.) Steud., Esenbeckia attenuata Griseb., Esenbeckia fasciculata Barb.Rodr., Esenbeckia obovalifolia Pittier, Esenbeckia grandiflora var. peruviana J.F.Macbr., Esenbeckia rigida R.S.Cowan
Description:Variety Description - Leaflets 5-16(-22) × 1.7-6.5(-ll) cm. Inflorescences narrowly paniculate, usually ca. 3-5 × 2-4 cm with side-branchlets to 2 cm, bracts and bractlets 1.5-2.5 × 1.1-1.8 mm. Flowers perfumed; calyx lobes 1.2-2 × 1.8-3 mm; petals 4.5-6 × 2.2-4.3 mm, thickly coriaceous; carpels to 2 × 3.5 mm with protuberances to 0.8 mm or some to 1.5 mm long.

Discussion:Uses: According to Cowan and Smith (1973), used for helves in Santa Catarina. According to Peckolt (1899: 338), the wood (of "E. fasciculata" ) resembles boxwood, and its export was permitted only to Portugal, being "madeira de lei." It was once reported as source of the "famous walking stick" in Trinidad, but confusion with E. pilocarpoides may have taken place (Cruger s.n., El Tucuche). The bark was used like that of E. febrifuga (see PHYTOCHEMISTRY).

Collections from the eastern Brazilian coasts (restinga, mata costeira), except for Smith & MacWilliams 15389, are distinguished by their more rigid-coriaceous, somewhat shining leaflets, with apex often more or less conduplicate and sometimes rounded. The margin is more strongly revolute, the base broadly cuneate or shortly attenuate, and the leaflet blade is usually subglabrous beneath. Whereas the leaflets of var. grandiflora are usually (not always!) obovate, the leaflets of the restinga collections are mostly elliptic, though slightly obovate leaflets also occur. These specimens undoubtedly belong to Polembryum jussieui Schott, which is synonymous with Esenbeckia grandiflora Martius var. grandiflora.

Schott himself (1834) already added to his P. jussieui as observatio II: "An Esenbeckia grandiflora Martii hujus generis?." I agree with Engler in transferring P. jussieui to E. grandiflora. In my opinion the restinga collections are ecological variants the leaves of which have become adapted to the special climatological conditions. The thickness of the leaves is the main differential character and this is not a reliable basis for a separate taxon. The specimens concerned are indicated in the list of studied specimens by an asterisk.

Esenbeckia attenuata differs not at all from the present variety. The specimens so identified were all collected in Trinidad during the last part of the 19th century.

When Grisebach published his E. attenuata (1859), E. grandiflora was known only from SE Brazil.

The comprehensive description of E. fasciculata Barbosa Rodrigues agrees well with mine of var. grandiflora. Unfortunately the original publication is very rare and the copy I traced (at Kew) lacks the plate. The type is unknown in any herbarium.

The type of E. rigida Cowan is certainly identical with the restinga collections and therefore with Polembryum jussieui (=E. grandiflora var. grandiflora). With regard to differences pointed out by Cowan, the (only 1) fruit is indeed somewhat depressed-globose, but only on one side, due to incomplete development of some of the loculi. The type specimen is glabrous, but the shoot apex appears to be strigillose and therefore it does not differ as such from many specimens of var. grandiflora. The fruiting stalk of the type is 6 mm long. This is 1 mm longer than the flowering pedicels of var. grandiflora. However, it is quite normal in Pilocarpinae for pedicels to grow during maturation of the fruit, as the sepals do. Cowan’s description of the leaflet-blade "widely elliptic 10-12 × 5.5-6.5 cm" agrees with my description of var. grandiflora in conformity with the SADT-chart as "elliptic."

Esenbeckia grandiflora var. macrophylla Chodat & Hassler does not deserve the status of a separate taxon. The leaflets of the syntypes are similar to those of var. grandiflora.

The specimen Delgado 298 in VEN is annotated by Pittier as the type of E. obovalifolia. Pittier, in his original description, gives the collecting date as July 1940. Other collections show that Delgado must have collected no. 298, not 2981, at that time. Therefore it is clear that the designation of the type of E. obovalifolia Pittier as no. 2981 is a mistake. The description differs in the size of the petals, but Pittier failed to mention that he studied buds only. The size of the calyx lobes is erroneously given as 2.5 instead of 1.5 mm; the stigma is 5-lobed only (as appears from the dissected flowers which were drawn and are still present). As the type of E. obovalifolia fully agrees with E. grandiflora var. grandiflora, I reduce E. obovalifolia to synonymy.

The type of var. peruviana Macbride was collected from a rather robust plant with some leaflets to 18 × 8.5 cm. The flowers, 13 mm in diam., are like those of var. grandiflora. The fruits have rather large prickles and the (immature) seeds are somewhat larger. These differences are, in my opinion, not sufficient to support varietal status.The inflorescences are usually small. Klein 1564, from Santa Catarina, has inflorescences to 11 × 5 cm with side-branchlets to 3 cm. In other characters this specimen does not differ. Some specimens from Bahia also show inflorescences 10 cm long.
Distribution:Minas Gerais Brazil South America| Brazil South America| Venezuela South America| Peru South America| Aragua Venezuela South America| Delta Amacuro Venezuela South America| Bolívar Venezuela South America| Trinidad and Tobago South America| Suriname South America| Pará Brazil South America| Ceará Brazil South America| Acre Brazil South America| Mato Grosso Brazil South America| Bahia Brazil South America| Distrito Federal Brazil South America| Minas Gerais Brazil South America| Espirito Santo Brazil South America| São Paulo Brazil South America| Rio de Janeiro Brazil South America| Paraná Brazil South America| Santa Catarina Brazil South America| Rio Grande do Sul Brazil South America| Caaguazú Paraguay South America| Paraguay South America| Alto Paraná Paraguay South America| Paraguarí Paraguay South America| Misiones Argentina South America| Argentina South America|

Common Names:Gasparil, gaspari(llo), Cocão, apochi-taguarà (=apojitaguara), caputuna, carrapateirão, pau-cutia, canela-(de-)cutia, guaxupita, cutia, cutia-amarela, canelero-del-monte