Monographs Details: Esenbeckia berlandieri Baill. ex Hemsl. subsp. berlandieri
Authority: Kaastra, Roelof C. 1982. A monograph of the Pilocarpinae (Rutaceae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 33: 1-198. (Published by NYBG Press)
Synonyms:Esenbeckia ovata Brandegee, Esenbeckia yaaxhokob Lundell, Esenbeckia berlandieri Baill. ex Hemsl.
Description:Subspecies Description - Branchlets hoary to minutely appressed-pubescent with most hairs 0.1-0.2 (-0.5) mm long, becoming glabrous. Leaves 3-5-foliolate; petiole semiterete, occasionally with wings 0.1-0.2 mm broad, the wings with ears 0(-0.3) mm long, distal tubercle present; leaflet blades with a (long-)attenuate base to 1 cm long, (sub)glabrous above but minutely puberulous at least at base with hairs 0.2-0.3 mm long, mostly appressed-puberulous below particularly towards base and the midvein with hairs 0.1-0.3(-0.6) mm long, rarely subglabrous below. Partial inflorescences 20 × 14 cm, hispidulous-tomentulose with most hairs 0.2-0.4 mm long; bracts mostly minutely puberulous on both sides with hairs to 0.2 mm long. Flowers 6.5-9 mm in diam.; calyx lobes 1-2 × 1-2 mm, glabrous or sometimes appressed-puberulous below with hairs 0.05-0.1 mm long; petals persistent, papillose above, glabrous below, venation actinodromous to parallel, the median nerve thicker; filaments persistent; carpels apically charged with protuberances varying from 0.1 to 0.6 mm long, postflorally provided with an apophysis of ca. 0.8 mm long, glabrous but some of the protuberances with a single apical hair; style (1.5-)2-3.2 mm long, projecting 1-2.2 mm beyond the ovary. Fruits depressed, stellately-lobed, to 3.4 cm broad when dehisced, brown, provided at 1/3 below tip with a blunt apophysis to ca. 3 mm long, slightly muricate to irregularly tuberculate, the tubercles to 2 mm long, slightly irregularly carinate or not, exocarp nerves observable externally on the sides; seed with a straight, beaked apex 2-3 mm long, chalazal area indistinctly bounded, ca. 2-4 × 2-4 mm, somewhat darker than the rest of testa when ripe.

Discussion:This subspecies is near to Esenbeckia pentaphylla. Evidence of this is e.g. the occurrence of 5-foliolate leaves, the calyx which appears to be frequently pilose, and the petals occasionally beset with few hairs. Other indications may be the misidentifications of Palmer 181 (see under E. pentaphylla), and of Gaumer 752 (see Radlkofer, 1898: 401).

I agree with Lundell (1941) that the relationship of E. yaaxhokob is closer to E. berlandieri than to E. pentaphylla. Differences of E. yaaxhokob from the latter species are e.g. the (nearly) glabrous petals, the shorter base of the leaflets, and the straight apex of the seeds. The leaves of E. berlandieri, however, are, though mainly 3-foliolate, partly 5-foliolate as well, and the reverse occurs in E. yaaxhokob. The indument of the inflorescence is alike in the two species. The specimens of E. yaaxhokob studied by Lundell show the calyx nearly glabrous or appressed-puberulous, like that of E. berlandieri subsp. berlandieri. Because there are no distinct differences between the two taxa I decided to reduce E. yaaxhokob to synonymy under E. berlandieri subsp. berlandieri.

Nonfruiting specimens of the present subspecies are sometimes much like those of E. runyonii. Some differences are: not abrupt ending of the leaflet base; the inflorescence of 1-5 partial inflorescences instead of only 1; and calyx lobes, petals, and filaments in general narrower, while the style is longer.

The name Esenbeckia berlandieri was first mentioned by Baillon (Adansonia 10: 151. 1871) in his original description of Picrella (trifoliolata). Although the name was accompanied by a diagnosis, it was only mentioned incidentally and therefore, under Art. 34(3) of the ICBN, not validly published at that time. Hemsley validated E. berlandieri 8 years later with a reference to the diagnosis of Baillon. He saw only Berlandier 3125 at K, and this specimen therefore is the holotype. Baillon based his name on collections of Berlandier and Virlet d’Aoust. In his type herbarium (P) there are no specimens of E. berlandieri. Virlet d’Aoust 1240 (in Baillon’s herbarium) and Berlandier 1404 (in the general herbarium at P), however, seem to have been used for the diagnosis of E. berlandieri Baillon. They agree completely with the description, but both represent Helietta parvifolia Bentham, the latter being even one of its syntypes. Fortunately Baillon did not validly publish his name, therefore there is no need to replace the well known name E. berlandieri.

Incidentally, on account of the description with plate 10, it is possible that the poorly known genus Picrella is also referable Helietta.
Distribution:Mexico North America| Tamaulipas Mexico North America| Veracruz Mexico North America| Oaxaca Mexico North America| Yucatán Mexico North America| Quintana Roo Mexico North America|

Common Names:Hokob in Yucatán, yax-hokob