Monographs Details: Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. subsp. canjerana
Authority: Pennington, Terence D. 1981. Meliaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 28: 1-359, 418-449, 459-470. (Published by NYBG Press)
Family:Meliaceae
Synonyms:Trichilia canjerana Vell., Turraea americana Vell., Cabralea glaberrima A.Juss., Cabralea cangerana Saldanha, Cabralea burchellii C.DC., Cabralea corcovadensis C.DC., Cabralea eichleriana C.DC., Cabralea estrellensis C.DC., Cabralea gaudichaudii C.DC., Cabralea glaziovii C.DC., Cabralea jussiaeana C.DC., Cabralea lagoensis C.DC., Cabralea lundii C.DC., Cabralea macrophylla Fenzl, Cabralea macrophylla var. decomposita C.DC., Cabralea multijuga C.DC., Cabralea pallescens C.DC., Cabralea pedunculata C.DC., Cabralea pilosa C.DC., Cabralea pilosa var. glabrior C.DC., Cabralea riedelii C.DC., Cabralea silvatica C.DC., Cabralea warmingiana DC., Cabralea warmingiana var. coriacea C.DC., Cabralea poeppigii C.DC., Cabralea lagoensis var. glabra C.DC., Cabralea schwackei C.DC., Cabralea brachystachya C.DC., Cabralea eichleriana var. macrantha C.DC., Cabralea villosa C.DC., Cabralea rojasii C.DC., Cabralea oblongifolia C.DC., Cabralea erismatica A.C.Sm., Cabralea cauliflora Harms, Cabralea macrantha Harms, Cabralea lacaziana Rizzini
Description:Species Description - A tree to 40 m, but often flowering when less than 10 m. Larger specimens have prominent butresses and pale greyish fissured bark (see photograph in Reitz et al. (1978, p. 150)). As in the related genus Ruagea, the leaves show a degree of apical growth, with the terminal pairs of leaflets maturing sometime after the lower ones. The leaf may finally produce a reduced or vestigial terminal leaflet, but more often it is paripinnate. The flowers are without scent, have a greenish-cream corolla, and cream-coloured staminal tube. The colour of the mature fruit varies from pale yellowish brown to dark reddish. The pericarp is rather soft and fleshy and contains (in Costa Rica) sticky white exudate, and the endocarp is barely differentiated as a thin membraneous layer. Dehiscence reveals the white interior of the fruit, containing orange-brown seeds partially surrounded by a bright orange arillode. Flowering takes place from August to January throughout its range in South America. Although the only collection with mature flowers in Costa Rica is from January, other specimens bearing young flower buds have been collected in March. It appears to be a characteristic of this subspecies to have flowers and mature fruit on the plant at the same time.

Discussion:

There are no structural differences in the flowers to indicate sexual dimorphism, and according to Girardi (1975a), who studied the species in the field, it is hermaphrodite. However, it was noted that in a few collections, even with mature, open flowers, the anthers had not dehisced. It is possible that such plants are functionally male and represent a similar situation as is found in Guarea silvatica.

The wood has excellent characteristics similar to those of Cedrela and it is an important construction timber in southern Brazil.

Cabralea represents the worst case of overdescription in the family. The "species" so far described (and the description of "novelties" is still continuing) represent little more than single gatherings, sometimes from the same, or hardly separable, localities, differing from previously described "species" in the variation of a single trivial character. If such characters are used as the basis of species, then in an area like southeastern Brazil, where no two specimens are alike, there is no limit to the number that can be described. A properly collected sample of a population from Rio de Janeiro would be found to contain most of the "species" now included under C. canjerana subsp, canjerana. a population from Rio de Janeiro would be found to contain most of the "species" now included under C. canjerana a population from Rio de Janeiro would be found to contain most of the "species" now included under C. canjerana subsp. canjerana.

Relationships

For such a widely distributed plant, subsp, canjerana is remarkably constant and non-variable in floral structure. There are no qualitative variations in floral structure and the only quantitative ones are sporadic and minor differences in the length of the corolla and staminal tube, length of the pedicel, and size of the fruit.

Vegetative features are also constant in Costa Rica and Amazonia, but show extreme variability under the diverse physical conditions of southeast Brazil. In this area the variation in leaflet size, texture, presence or absence of verruculae porosae and gland dots, indumentum, presence or absence of tufts of hair in the vein axils, have formed the basis of the numerous species which are here reduced to synonymy. Such variation in these characters is sporadic and uncorrelated, and although the extremes seem distinct at first sight, they are invariably connected to other less distinct forms through a series of intermediates.

Distribution and Ecology: Costa Rica and with scattered records throughout lowland tropical South America. Common in the coastal forests of southeast Brazil from Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul and extending to the drainage of the Parana and Uruguay Rivers. It is usually a plant of non-flooded evergreen lowland or lower montane rain forest, but in Minas Gerais and Goias it extends into areas with a drier, strongly seasonal climate. In the latter areas it is confined to gallery forests. For information on the distribution and ecology of this subspecies in Santa Catarina see Reitz et al. (1978) (under Cabralea glaberrima Adr. Jussieu).

Distribution:Costa Rica South America| Cartago Costa Rica Central America| Guyana South America| Peru South America| Amazonas Peru South America| San Martín Peru South America| Madre de Dios Peru South America| Huánuco Peru South America| Brazil South America| Roraima Brazil South America| Pará Brazil South America| Mato Grosso Brazil South America| Bahia Brazil South America| Goiás Brazil South America| Minas Gerais Brazil South America| Rio de Janeiro Brazil South America| São Paulo Brazil South America| Paraná Brazil South America| Santa Catarina Brazil South America| Rio Grande do Sul Brazil South America| Bolivia South America| La Paz Bolivia South America| Paraguay South America| Argentina South America| Misiones Argentina South America|

Common Names:Canyarana, Cancharana, Canjerana, Cangerana, Cajarana, Canharana, caroba, Cedrahy, Cedrohy, Cedrora, Mamantunim, Requia blanca, Cedro Masha