Ceratostema alatum (Hoerold) Sleumer
Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem
This name is currently accepted.
pena pena del pajón, pera, pera silvestre, pipino, manzanilla, gualicón, joyapa
Description: Low, terrestrial shrub 1-1.5(-3) m tall, rarely epiphytic; stem terete, striate, glabrous; bark gray, cracking into thin, rectangular strips; twigs complanate, striate to sharply ribbed, glabrous but sometimes glaucous. Leaves thick-coriaceous, elliptic, 2-5(-6) x 1-3(-3.5) cm, base broadly cuneate or rounded to long-attenuate, apex acute to rounded, the apex itself usually blunt or rarely apiculate, margin remotely crenate to minutely serrate with each tooth terminating in a tiny, reddish-brown, deciduous glandular hair, the margin itself thin, often conspicuously revolute, glabrous; pinnately nerved with 2-5 lateral nerves per side, midrib, lateral nerves and reticulate veinlets all usually impressed above and slightly raised beneath, leaves sometimes slightly bullate, glandular fimbriae sometimes sunken on upper surface; petiole subterete, flattened above, rugose, slightly winged, 2-5 mm long, glabrous to puberulous. Inflorescence axillary, racemose, 4-7-flowered, glabrous; rachis subterete, sharply angled, nitid, 1-4.5 cm long; floral bract ovate, acute-acuminate, 2-4 mm long, marginally with few, stout, sharply pointed glandular fimbriae; pedicel subterete, sharply angled, 15-25 mm long, deep crimson or red, nitid, with few glandular fimbriae distally; bracteoles nearly based or below middle, similar to floral bract but ca. 1.5-2.5 mm long, sometimes ciliate at tip. Flowers with calyx articulate, 6-9 mm long; hypanthium obprismatic, truncate, strongly and bluntly 5-ribbed or narrowly winged, 5-6 mm long, deep crimson to red; limb spreading essentially perpendicular to calyx axis at anthesis, 2-4 mm long; lobes broadly ovate, apiculate, 1-2 mm long; sinuses acute; corolla carnose, cylindric but broadly and bluntly pentagonal and basally conspicuously ventricose, 35-54 mm long and 12-16 mm basal diam., deep crimson to dark scarlet, the lobes spreading and strongly reflexed exposing the stamen and style, thin, narrowly linear-triangular, 20-26 mm long, dark purple within; stamen 10, alternately slightly unequal, 31-49 mm long; filaments distinct, equal to alternately slightly unequal, 3-7 mm long, weakly puberulent distally along margin; anthers alternately slightly unequal, 30-45 mm; thecae alternately slightly unequal, 10.5-20 mm long; tubules lightly connate in proximal one-third, alternately slightly unequal, longer than thecae, 16-27 mm long, dehiscing by short oblique pores 1-1.5 mm long; style shortly exserted, glabrous. Berry oblate-spheroid, to 1.5 cm long and 2 cm diam., dull reddish, nitid, slightly sweet.
Distribution: Colombia and Ecuador; endemic to páramo vegetation at 2800-3950 m altitude.
Local names: Ecuador: pipino, pena pena del pajón, gualicón, joyapa, pera, pera silvestre, manzanilla.
Uses: medicinally a decoction is drunk for the nerves; fruits edible.
Illustration: Luteyn (1996), plate 6.
Type: Ecuador. Tungurahua: Volcán Tungurahua, Aug 1901 (fl), Sodiro 92/4c (holotype, B?; lectotype, designated by Luteyn (1996), NY fragment ex B holotype and photo ACS neg. 47; isolectotypes, P, Q). Another sheet of Sodiro 92/4c at P, with the type number, is also C. alatum, but it is from Oyacachi and was collected in Jan 1900; therefore, it is not part of the type.