Person Details: R. Spruce
R. Spruce ( Richard Spruce )
1817 – 1893
Bryophytes; Pteridophytes; Spermatophytes; Lichens
Author, Determiner, Collector
England, United States of America, Brazil, Venezuela, Peru, Ecuador, Guyana, South America (all countries)
British botanist and plant collector; schoolmaster at Haxby and (1839-1844) the Collegiate School of York; from 1844 dedicating himself exclusively to botany; collected in the Pyrenees 1845-1846; collecting in South America 1849-1864; from 1864 in London, Hurstpirpoint, Welburn (1867-1876) and, ultimately in Coneysthorpe (Yorks.) (1876-1893); Dr. phil. Leopoldina 1864.

Herbarium and Types: Main S. American collections at K; duplicates at AWH, B, BEL, BH, BM, BP, BR, C, CAL, CAS, CGE, CHR, DBN, DS, E, F, FH, FI (incl. Europ), G, GH, GLAM, GOET, H, L, LD, LE, LINN (Brit, pi.), M, MANCH, MG, MICH, NY (incl. mosses Pyrenees through Duss), OXF, P, PC, PH, RB, S, TCD, US, W, YRK (Brit. pi.). - Many of Spruce's Venezuelan collections have been cited from Brazil since this is stated on the labels. - Letters at BM, FH, G, GH, H, K, NY. Diary (1841-1863) at LINN. Botanical manuscripts by Spruce at Kew include: Plantae amazonicae (2 vols.), Plantae andinae (2 vols. numerical register to his flowering plants and ferns; often with descriptions), a volume of mss. ("i") with short botanical notes; a further volume of mss. ("ii") containing his original journal 1851-1855; a memorandum book containing the journal from Tarapoto to Banos and notes on bryophytes; letters from W.J. Hooker, G. Bentham, J.D. Hooker, W. Mitten, J. Miers, Destringe and E. Bescherclle; introductory notes on Hepaticae; the correspondence with W. Borrer on European bryophytes (Bull, misc. Inf. Kew 1908: 464). - Some field notes also at NY.

(1) Hepaticae pyrenaicae, quas in Pyrenaeis centralibus occidentalibusque, nee non in agro syrtico, a.d. 1845-6, nos. 1-77, London 1847. Sets at BM, G, K, NY, PC.
(2) Musci pyrenaicae. quos in Pyrenaeis centralibus occidentalibusque, nee non in ago syrtico, a.d. 1845-6 decerpsit. Rich. Spruce. Fascis i; nos. 1-160, ii: nos. 161-331. London
1847. Sets id. - For further details on (1) and (2) see Sayre 1971.
(3) Hepaticae spruceanae amazonkae et andinae, annis 1849-1860 lectae. Malton, 1892, distributed in irregular sets. Review: L.M. Underwood, Bot. Gaz. 18: 112-113. Mar 1893.
Further details: Sayre 1975.

Major works:
1862. Report on the expedition to procure seeds and plants of the Cinchona succirubra. (Rep. Exped. Cinchona)
1867. Catalogus muscorum. (Cat. Musc.)
1869. Palmae amazonicae, in J. Linn. Soc, Bot. 11 (50-51): 65-183.
1876. On Anomodada, a new genus of Hepaticae, in J. Bot. 14: 129-136. Mai, 161-170. Jun, 193-203. Jul, 230-235. Aug 1876.
1880-1881. Musci praeteriti, in J. Bot. 18: 289-295. Oct, 353-361. Dec 1880, 19: ii-i8Jan, 33-40. Feb 1881.
1882. On Cephalozia. (Cephalozia)
1884-1885. Hepaticae of the Amazon. (Hepat. Amazon)
1886. Precis dun voyage, in Rev. Bryol. 13(4): [i]-20.
1887. Lejeuma hollii, a new hepatic from Killarney, in J. Bot. 25: 33-39.
1887. On a new Irish hepatic, in J. Bot. 25: 209-211.
1890. Hepaticae bolivianae, in Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 1(3): 113-140.
1895. Hepaticae Elliottianae, in J. Linn. Soc, Bot. 30: 331-372.
1908. Notes of a botanist on the Amazon & Andes. (Notes Bot. Amazon)

Ref. Stafleu and Cowan, Taxonomic Literature, II.
Botanical Collections
Richard Spruce Project website