Publications on this list will help visitors to the Preserve identify and appreciate plants found as well as learn about the classification and ecology of the species they encounter. An effort has been made to include the references that are referred to in the text of this website; for example, Armstrong (2004) is cited as the source for the number of genera and species of Lemnaceae which are now believed to belong to the Araceae. On the other hand, many of the entries in this list are cited because they are interesting papers about the plants of the Preserve that users might like to consult.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). Accessed 2018. APG IV system. Wikipedia. As of 25 February 2018 this is the most up-to-date version to appear on Wikipedia. This is a summary of the APG system which gives a overview of the system. It is especially good for finding out where a given taxon is placed. The official and most recent update of the APG is managed by P.F. Stevens (see citation below).

Armstrong, W. 2004. Lemnaceae (Duckweed Family) pp. 454-456 in N. P. Smith, S. A. Mori, A. Henderson, Dennis Dw. Stevenson & S. V. Heald (eds.), Flowering Plants of the Neotropics.  Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.

Beans, C. M. & D.A. Roach. 2015. An invasive plant alters pollinator-mediated phenotypic selection on a native congener. Trends in Ecology &amp.Evolution 23(3): 123-150.

Beattie, A.J. 1974. Floral evolution in Viola. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 61(3): 781-793. A detailed explanation of the morphology of violet flowers and the co-evolution of their flowers and pollinators.

Bell Travis, K. 2017. Backyard management of invasive plants: a biology-based, practical, low-impact approach. News from Hudsonia 31 (1): 2-3, 8-10. A useful overview of how to control invasive plants.

Bohling, M. 2013. Invasive Pragmites australis: what is it and why is it a problem. Michigan State University Extension. Pragmites australis includes two subspecies: subsp. australis (a widespread invasive plant) and subsp. americanus (a native plant). The former subspecies is the one found at the Westchester Wilderness Walk/Zofnass Family preserve. Consult this publication for differences between the subspecies and for additional information about the ecology of this species.

Brusa, A. and C. Holzapfel. 2018. Population structure of Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae): The role of land-use history and management. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 145(1): 55–68. This species is a widespread invasive. As of 25 February 2018, only one tree has been documented in the preserve.

Clemants, S.E. & C.A. Gracie. Wildflowers in the Field and Forest, Oxford University Press, U.S.A.

Connolly, B.A. 2017. Verifying the occurrence of Cardamine impatiens (Brassicaceae) in Rhode Island. Rhodora 118 (976): 409-411. Provides useful information for distinguishing C. impatiens from other species of the genus.

Croat, W. 2004. Araceae (Aroid or Philodendron Family) pp. 413-416 in N. P. Smith, S. A. Mori, A. Henderson, Dennis Dw. Stevenson & S. V. Heald (eds.), Flowering Plants of the Neotropics.  Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford in Association with The New York Botanical Garden.

Crow, G.E. & C.B. Hellquist. 2000. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Northeastern North America.. Volume 1. Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms: Dicotyledons. The University of Wisconsin. 536 pp.

Crow, G. E. & C.B. Hellquist. 2000. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Northeastern North America.. Volume 2. Angiosperms: Monocotyledons. The University of Wisconsin. 466 pp.

Daniel, S. 2017. Those maddening name changes. NYFA Quarterly Newsletter 28: 1-3.

Duncan, S.S. & T.S.J. Whitfeld. 2018. Biomass of invasive earthworms and plant diversity in a southern New England forest. Rhodora 119 (No. 980): 277–303, The authors found that “a high biomass of invasive earthworms coincided with reduced total plant phylogenetic diversity and species richness, in addition to reduced richness of native plants, and increased abundance of non-invasive plants.”

Ellis, B., D.C. Daly, L.J. Hickey, K.R. Johnson, J.D. Mitchell, P. Wilf & S. L. Wing. 2009. Manual of Leaf Archtitecture. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca New York, 190 pp,

Evert, R.F. & S. E. Eichorn. 2013. Raven Biology of Plants. W. H. Freeman and Company Publishers. 727 pp.  Appendices: Classification of Organisms pp. A1-.6; Suggestions for Reading pp FR 1-11; Glossary pp G1-26; Illustrations credit pp IC 1-7; Index pp I1-64. This is an outstanding resource for learning about botany.

Faillace, C.A., J. S. Caplan, J. C. Graboski & P. J. Morin. 2018. Beneath it all: size, not origin, predicts below ground competition ability in exotic and native shrubs. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 145(1): 30–40. The following alien species found in the Preserve are Berberis thunbergii and Rubus phoenicolasius.

Faison, E.K. & D. R. Foster. 2017. Long-term deer exclusion has complex effects on a suburban forest understory. Rhodora 118 (976): 382-402. A study of deer browsing based on deer exclusion for 15 years in a suburban hardwood forest in Connecticut.

Furlow, J.F. 1997. Betulaceae Gray (Birch Family). Pages 507-538 in: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, Flora of North America 3: Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hammaelidae, Oxford University Press.

Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden. 993 pp. Provides keys and short descriptions of the vascular plant species of the northeastern United States. Numerous nomenclatural changes have been made after this book was published.

Gover, A., L. Kuhns & J. Johnson. 2003 (revised). Managing Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) on roadsides. Roadside Research Managment, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture Sciences. Penn State, University.

Gracie, C.A. 2012. Spring Wildflowers of the Northeast. Princeton University Press. 272 pp.

Holmgren, Noel H. 1998. Illustrated companion to Gleason and Cronquist’s Manual: Illustrations of the vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden Press. xx + 937 pp. Provides botanical line drawings of most of the species treated in Gleason and Cronquist (1991) manual.

Naczi, R.F. 2016. New Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Brittonia 68(3): 238-244.

Nelson, G., C.J. Earle & R. Spellenberg. 2014. Trees of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press. 720 pp.

Pettinelli, D. 2014. Crazy snake worms. Connecticut Gardener Sept/Oct pp. 24-27. A good introduction to the negative impact that invasive worms have on forests and gardens. Click here to access the paper.

Randall, J.A. 2010. Maple syrup production. Iowa State University, Forestry Extension. A very good description of the economic botany of maple syrup production. All maples produce the sap from which maple syrup is map but they range in sweetness. For example, Acer negundo requires 86 gallons of sap to produce one gallon of syrup. In contrast, Acer saccharum needs only 43 gallons.

Robinson, G.R., M.E. Yurlina & S.N. Handel. 1994. A century of change in the Staten Island flora: Ecological correlates of species losses and invasions. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 121(2): 119-129. Studied species losses and gains from 1879 to 1991 in a florestic cenus repeated three times in Staten Island. Over 40% of the original flora are no longer present whereas the proportion of non-native plants increased from 19% to more than 33%. An important paper that documents changes in floral diversity over time.

Ripple, W.J. et al. 2017. World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice. BioScience, bix125, The overall status of the World’s environment is updated in this paper since the Union of Concerned Scientists organized a petition in 1992. The goal of the petition and this update is to bring attention to the world’s governments about the world’s ability to maintain the planets ecosystem services.

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. 2017 accessed. International Plant Names Index.  index. This site provides information about plant names, botanists, and botanical publications.

Sarver, M.J., A. Treher, L. Wilson, R. Naczi & F. B. Kuen. 2008. Mistaken indentity? Invasive Plants and their Native Look-alikes: an Identification Guide for the Mid-Atlantic. Delaware Department of Agriculture and USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 61 pp. This book compares 20 invasive species in the Mid-Atlantic United States with morphologically similar native native species.

Smith, N.P., S.A. Mori, A. Henderson, D. Wm. Stevenson, and S.V. Heald. 2004. Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford in Association with The New York Botanical Garden.

Splinter, J.L. van, M.B. Burgess, D.M. Spada & D. Werier. 2016. Berberis x ottawensis (Berberidaceae): A new addition to the flora of New York. Rhodora 118 (976): 412-414.

Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since], This website provides the up-to-date classification of the flowering plants. For example, one can determine that the maple genus (Acer) has been moved from the Aceraceae to the Sapindaceae.

Tal, A. 2018 onward. Asteraceae in Botphoto (click on This website is an outstanding tool for understanding the Asteraceae of the northeastern United States. 186 species are included in the digital key which includes many of the species in the area. The key is designed for use by non-specialists in the Asteraceae but that does not mean that botanists and even specialists in this family will not benefit from this website. Using the key is facilitated by countless beautiful images of species and the use of a glossary if the user is not familiar with botanical terms. Because the Cichorieae are difficult to determine, the author has provided a traditional dichotomous key to the species of this tribe.

Tal, A. 2018 onward. Violaceae in Botphoto (click on Charts with key characters and images allow users to identify species of violets. A glossary of botanical terms of violets is provided. At the present time the link to information about violets is found on the Home Page.

Tallamy, D. 2018. Unwelcome introduction? Non native invasive plants can threaten our ecosystems. New York State Conservationist. Pp. 25-27. This essay explains the reasons that Tallamy and others worry about  increases of plant invasions. Tallamy’s article is available online. Missouri Botanical Garden. 08 Jul 2017 <>. This site provides a wealth of information about about the plants of the world. For example, one can determine the correct spelling of a species and when and where it was published.

USDA (United States Deparment of Agriculture. Accessed 2017. Plants Database. This site provides a wealth of information about the plants of the United States. Among other things, it is especially useful for determining the overall distribution of species.

Wallace, G.D. 1977. Studies of Monotropoideae (Ericaceae). Floral nectaries: Anatomy and function in pollination ecology. American Journal of Botany 64(2): 199-206. Cites bumblebees as the most efficient pollinators and shows that the nectaries arise from the ovary.

Ward, J.S., S.C. Williams & T.E. Worthley. 2013. Japanese barberry control methods for foresters and professional woodland managers. Special Bulletin of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station and the University of Connecticut ( special_bulletin_feb_2013_ward.pdf).

Werier, D. 2017. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of New York State. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Society 27: 1–542. This is an especially useful tool for determining which is the correct name for each of the New York State species of vascular plants. For example, Duchesnia indica is now a synonym of Potentilla indica. In addition, this reference book  allows users to learn what family a species belongs. For example, Mimulus ringens has been moved from the Scrophulariaceae to the Phyrmaceae. Coverage includes lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, and flowering plants.

Whittemore, A. T. 2016. Juglandaceae, the Walnut Family. R.F.C. allows Naczi, J. R. Abbott, and Collaborators, New Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, online edition of 2016. NYBG Press, New York. The following genera are treated in this publication: Carya ( 9 spp.) and Juglans (2 spp.).

Yih, D. 2016. Plants and mycorrhizae (Part 3). Food, poison, and intelligence gathering: mycorrhizal networks in action. Connecticut Botanical Society Newsletter 43(2): 4–7. An informative paper in which the relationships among flowering plants and mycorrhizal fungi are explained.

Young, S. M. 2017. New York rare plant status lists. New York Natural Heritage Program A Partnership between SUNY ESF and the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation. Click here to access the paper. A thorough assessment of the rare plant status of New York Plants.