Publications on this list will help hikers identify and appreciate plants found in the Preserve as well as learn about the classification and ecology of the species they encounter. An effort has been made to include the references that are referred to in the text of this website; for example, Armstrong (2004) is cited as the source for the number of genera and species of Lemnaceae which are now believed to belong to the Araceae. On the other hand, many of the entries in this list are cited in the text because they are interesting papers about the plants of the Preserve that others might like to consult.

Armstrong, W. 2004. Lemnaceae (Duckweed Family) pp. 454-456 in N. P. Smith, S. A. Mori, A. Henderson, Dennis Dw. Stevenson & S. V. Heald (eds.), Flowering Plants of the Neotropics.  Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.

Beans, Carolyn M. & Roach, Deborah A. 2015. An invasive plant alters pollinator-mediated phenotypic selection on a native congener.Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23(3): 123-150.

Bell Travis, K. 2017. Backyard management of invasive plants: a biology-based, practical, low-impact approach. News from Hudsonia 31 (1): 2-3, 8-10. A useful overview of how to control invasive plants.

Bohling, M. 2013. Invasive Pragmites australis: what is it and why is it a problem. Michigan State University Extension. Pragmites australis includes two subspecies: subsp. australis (a widespread invasive plant) and subsp. americanus (a native plant). The former subspecies is the one found at the Westchester Wilderness Walk/Zofnass Family preserve. Consult this publication for differences between the subspecies and for additional information about the ecology of this species.

Clemants, Steven E. & Gracie, Carol A. Wildflowers in the Field and Forest, Oxford University Press, U.S.A.

Connolly, B. A. 2017. Verifying the occurrence of Cardamine impatiens (Brassicaceae) in Rhode Island. Rhodora 118 (976): 409-411. Provides useful information for distinguishing C. impatiens from other species of the genus.

Croat, W. 2004. Araceae (Aroid or Philodendron Family) pp. 413-416 in N. P. Smith, S. A. Mori, A. Henderson, Dennis Dw. Stevenson & S. V. Heald (eds.), Flowering Plants of the Neotropics.  Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.

Crow, G. E. & C. B. Hellquist. 2000. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Northeastern North America.. Volume 1. Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms: Dicotyledons. The University of Wisconsin. 536 pp.

Crow, G. E. & C. B. Hellquist. 2000. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Northeastern North America.. Volume 2. Angiosperms: Monocotyledons. The University of Wisconsin. 466 pp.

Daniel, S. 2017. Those maddening name changes. NYFA Quarterly Newsletter 28: 1-3.

Ellis, B., D. C. Daly, L. J. Hickey, K. R. Johnson, J. D. Mitchell, P. Wilf & S. L. Wing. 2009. Manual of Leaf Archtitecture. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca New York, 190 pp,

Evert, R. F. & S. E. Eichorn. 2013. Raven Biology of Plants. W. H. Freeman and Company Publishers. 727 pp.  Appendices: Classification of Organisms pp. A1-.6; Suggestions for Reading pp FR 1-11; Glossary pp G1-26; Illustrations credit pp IC 1-7; Index pp I1-64. This is an outstanding resource for learning about botany.

Faison, E. K. & D. R. Foster, 2017. Long-term deer exclusion has complex effects on a suburban forest understory. Rhodora 118 (976): 382-402. A study of deer browsing based on deer exclusion for 15 years in a suburban hardwood forest in Connecticut.

Furlow, J. F. 1997. Betulaceae Gray (Birch Family). Pages 507-538 in: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, Flora of North America 3: Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hammaelidae, Oxford University Press.

Gleason, H. A. & A. J. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden. 993 pp. Provides keys and short descriptions of the vascular plant species of the northeastern United States. Numerous nomenclatural changes have been made after this book was published.

Gover, A., L. Kuhns & J. Johnson. 2003 (revised). Managing Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) on roadsides. Roadside Research Managment, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture Sciences. Penn State, University.

Gracie, C. 2012. Spring Wildflowers of the Northeast. Princeton University Press. 272 pp.

Holmgren, Noel H. 1998. Illustrated companion to Gleason and Cronquist’s Manual: Illustrations of the vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden Press. xx + 937 pp. Provides botanical line drawings of most of the species treated in Gleason and Cronquist (1991) manual.

Nelson, G., C. J. Earle & R. Spellenberg. 2014. Trees of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press. 720 pp.

Pettinelli, D. 2014. Crazy snake worms. Connecticut Gardener Sept/Oct pp. 24-27. A good introduction to the negative impact that invasive worms have on forests and gardens. Click here to access the paper.

Ripple, W. J. et al. 2017. World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice. BioScience, bix125, The overall status of the World’s environment is updated in this paper since the Union of Concerned Scientists organized a petition in 1992. The goal of the petition and this update is to bring attention to the world’s governments about the world’s ability to maintain the planets ecosystem services.

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. 2017 accessed. International Plant Names Index.  index. This site provides information about plant names, botanists, and botanical publications.

Sarver, M. J., A. Treher, L. Wilson, R. Naczi & F. B. Kuen. 2008. Mistaken indentity? Invasive Plants and their Native Look-alikes: an Identification Guide for the Mid-Atlantic. Delaware Department of Agriculture and USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 61 pp. This book compares 20 invasive species in the Mid-Atlantic United States with morphologically similar native native species.

Splinter, J. L. van, M. B. Burgess, D. M. Spada & D. Werier. 2016. Berberis x ottawensis (Berberidaceae): A new addition to the flora of New York. Rhodora 118 (976): 412-414.

Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since], This website provides the up-to-date classification of the flowering plants. For example, one can determine that the maple genus (Acer) has been moved from the Aceraceae to the Sapindaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. 08 Jul 2017 <>. This site provides a wealth of information about about the plants of the world. For example, one can determine the correct spelling of a species and when and where it was published.

USDA (United States Deparment of Agriculture. Accessed 2017. Plants Database. This site provides a wealth of information about the plants of the United States. Among other things, it is especially useful for determining the overall distribution of species.

Ward, J. S., S. C. Williams & T. E. Worthley. 2013. Japanese barberry control methods for foresters and professional woodland managers. Special Bulletin of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station and the University of Connecticut ( special_bulletin_feb_2013_ward.pdf).

Yih, D. 2016. Plants and mycorrhizae (Part 3). Food, poison, and intelligence gathering: mycorrhizal networks in action. Connecticut Botanical Society Newsletter 43(2): 4–7. An informative paper in which the relationships among flowering plants and mycorrhizal fungi are explained.

Young, S. M. 2017. New York rare plant status lists. New York Natural Heritage Program A Partnership between SUNY ESF and the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation. Click here to access the paper. A thorough assessment of the rare plant status of New York Plants.