Reported flash flood incidences since the second week of April have left hundreds of thousands of people in need of immediate humanitarian support in Afar (Awsi), Oromia (Arsi, East Shewa, East and West Hararge zones) and Somali (7 zones) regions. Areas affected by recurring floods have been advocating for enhanced flood early warning, mitigation and preparedness mechanisms... In Somali region, more than 27,000 flood-affected households (165,000 persons) need urgent food, water, health services and NFI support. Overflow of Genale and Wabi Shebelle rivers and related tributaries due to recent heavy rains in the Somali region and the highlands of Oromia has affected more than 83 kebeles in 19 woredas (districts) of Afder, Fafan, Liben, Nogob, Siti, Shebele and warder Zones. Several Kebeles are submerged and farmlands are either flooded or washed away at flowering stage. Many people’s houses/shelters and livestock have reportedly been washed away, leaving people displaced and homeless. (OCHA, 22 Apr 2018)
Unlike in 2017 when the rains were poor, the above average Gu rains in April this year are already worsening conditions in overcrowded Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) settlements and displacing more people along riverine areas due to flooding...In Baidoa, half of the estimated more than 246,000 IDPs, are at the risk of flash flooding...In Galgadud region, heavy rains resulted in flash floods that destroyed IDPs shelters in settlements in low lying land in Abudwaq town...An estimated 9,300 displaced people in Danwadaag, Kulmiye and Wadajir settlements have been affected and an unknown number has moved to Cadaado town until flooding recedes...In Jubaland, an estimated 28,200 people have been displaced by flash flooding. This includes 8,000 in Saakow; 6,000 in Bu’ale; 6,000 in Luuq; 6,000 in Afmadow; 1,200 in Ceel Waaq villages and some 7,000 people in Jilib and Jamaame riverine areas who have been temporarily displaced to nearby highland areas. In Middle Shabelle, the Shabelle River burst its banks displacing people in Horseed area. Farms and IDP shelter were washed away. Some 7,000 affected people have moved to Hantiwadaag village in Jowhar. According to partners, an estimated 13,000 have been affected by flooding...In Hiraan region, thousands of people have been affected after the Shabelle River burst its banks and its inlets overflowed into parts of Belet Weyne town and several riverine villages inundating houses and crops. (OCHA, 22 Apr 2018)
Overall, more than 427,000 people have been affected as of 26 April and of these nearly 175,000 have been displaced as a result of the flash and river flooding in Hirshabelle, South West and Jubaland states as well as Banadir region, according to data collected by humanitarian partners. Assessments are ongoing to determine the impact of flooding in affected areas. (OCHA, 26 Apr 2018)
Since the beginning of 2018, there has been a significant reduction in availability and access to water due to a deficit caused by a lack of rain, which has been further affected by the La Niña phenomenon in the South American region.
The most affected departments in the country are Tacuarembó, Salto, Durazno and certain areas of Artigas, Paysandú, Rivera and Río Negro. In some areas, there is a considerable reduction in the levels of water in wells and dams, affecting the availability of water in the affected departments. In total, 95 per cent of the national population has potable water supply and access to it through water pipes, while the other 5 per cent use dams and storage tanks; this latter group of families have been directly affected by the water deficit, and the lack of water has considerably reduced available areas for growing crops and raising livestock, which has affected families’ food supply...According to SINAE’s forecasts issued on 6 March 2018, this drought could go on for two or three more months; although it could also last beyond the middle of the year. (IFRC, 21 Mar 2018)
On 19 March, floods were reported by the Belarusian authorities, local media and Belarus Red Cross (BRC) branches, with 316 houses reported to be flooded in three regions of the country. According to information provided by hydro-meteorological agencies, rapidly-increasing volumes of water are observed across the entire country. The rise of water levels amounts to 10–200 cm per day, depending on the district.
The Ministry of Emergencies predicts that 140 villages and towns and 36 gardeners’ partnerships will be affected by floods in a total of 43 districts. In addition, 70 road segments and 15 bridges, and at least 6,600 garden cottages are estimated to be flooded in the next two weeks. The water level of rivers is rising, with ice still covering the rivers Western Dvina, Dniepr, Berezina, Sozh, as well as the Vileiskoe, Chigirinskoe, Zaslavskoe, Soligorskoe, Krasnaya Sloboda water storages, and the lakes Drivyaty, Naroch, Chervonoe. (IFRC, 29 Mar 2018)
A disaster official on Vanuatu's Ambae island said the island was again being blanketed by ash and acid rain, only months after residents returned (RNZI, 19 Mar 2018). Government officials raised the Volcanic Alert Level from 2 to 3 on 18 March 2018. Ambae volcano is a very large volcano and is frequently active. Eruptions have been recorded every 10 to 50 years over the past 150 years. The current eruption is focused in the summit crater (Gov't of Vanuatu, 18 Mar 2018).
As of 16 April, the volcano once again spewed out ash and harmful smoke. Vanuatu's government is now looking into acquiring land to permanently resettle the island's 13,000 residents (ABC, 16 Apr 2018). The Council of Ministers has declared a State of Emergency on Ambae Island. Approximately 750 people have lost their homes, 643 as a result of the volcanic ash, and 115 by landslides. The Council of Ministers has ordered the entire population to evacuate the island (OCHA, 23 Apr 2018).
On 3rd March 2018, at around 16:00 local time, Rubavu District, located in the Western Province of Rwanda, experienced heavy rains, which resulted in flooding along Sebeya River and other areas where people live on steep hills were affected by landslides due to heavy rains. The affected areas are in four sectors of Rubavu, namely Nyundo, Nyakiliba, Rugerero and Kanama. In fact, the flooding resulted more from increased rainfall upstream than in the affected areas. There were no predictable signs of flooding downstream. According to the data gathered during joint rapid and detailed assessments conducted by RRCS, volunteers and local authorities, around 5,000 households (25,000 people) from 7 cells of the four sectors were affected by the floods, of which 4,750 people from 950 households were directly affected. These 950 Homeless families are being accommodated in the nearby communities after their homes were either destroyed or damaged by flowing waters and mud debris. (IFRC, 23 Mar 2018)
Heavy rain has been affecting the central, the south-west and south-east areas of the country, including the capital Nairobi, since the beginning of the month, causing floods, flash floods and casualties. According to media, as of 20 March, the death toll has reached at least 15 people in the provinces of Central, Nyanza and Eastern. They also reported that around 1 000 people were evacuated in the counties of Makueni (Eastern province), Kilifi and Tana (Coast province). Over the next 24 hours, more heavy rain with local thunderstorms is forecast for the affected areas. (ECHO, 20 Mar 2018)
The March–May long rains began atypically early countrywide and with significantly above-average amounts, upwards of 145 percent of the long-term averages. The rains are welcomed after the extended dry season in many eastern areas of the country, improving water availability, but have also led to flooding. In Kajiado, Makueni, and Kilifi, flooding destroyed property, displaced households, and caused approximately five deaths, mostly children. (FEWS NET, 22 Mar 2018)
As of 13 April, at least five people have been killed in Tana River county (Coast Province) and another three people have gone missing in Samburu county. Several houses have been flooded in Samburu and a bridge has been damaged in Turkana county. (ECHO, 13 Apr 2018)
In Mandera county, at least 750 homes were swept away and an estimated 4,500 people have been displaced. In Turkana county, a bridge has been washed away, cutting off stranded communities from supplies and support. While it’s not yet clear how many shelters have been destroyed in Dadaab, many refugees were forced to shelter in schools as water levels rose, stranding some who had to be rescued. (Save the Children, 20 Apr 2018)
Floods have displaced more than 211,000 people and reportedly killed 72 people and injured 33 across Kenya since March 2018. The most affected counties are Turkana, Tana River, Garissa, Isiolo, Kisumu, Taita, Mandera, Wajir, Marsabit, West Pokot, Samburu and Narok, according to the Kenya Red Cross Society (KRCS). The floods have disrupted livelihoods, with at least 8,450 acres of farmland submerged in water and more than 6,000 livestock killed, destroyed houses and damaged infrastructure, such as roads and health facilities (OCHA, 25 Apr 2018.)
A 7.5 magnitude earthquake struck on 26 February (25 February UTC), with its epicentre in Nipa-Kutubu district, Southern Highlands province. The affected area is sparsely populated, with a dispersed population living in remote, rural communities. There are no major urban areas in the immediate vicinity although there is a gas pipeline in the area. There were some minor landslides following the earthquake, but as of 26 February no damage to infrastructure or homes has been reported. (OCHA, 26 Feb 2018)
At 15.17 UTC on 26 February 2018, a major aftershock with a magnitude of 6.2 M occurred in the Southern Highlands province close to the location of the 7.5 M earthquake of 25 February. According to media, as of 27 February, at least 30 people have been killed and 300 have been injured, several houses have been buried due to landslides in the worst affected areas of Hela and Southern Highlands provinces. The search and rescue operations are still ongoing and the death toll is expected to rise. For the time being, local authorities have not requested international support. (ECHO, 27 Feb 2018)
On 1 Mar, an immediate State of Emergency has been declared for Highlands Earthquake Disaster areas in Hela, Southern Highlands, Western and Enga Provinces to expedite the restoration of essential public services. PNG government approved K450 million for relief operations and to restore services, as well as the formation of an Emergency Disaster Restoration Team and the Establishment of a Restoration Authority to manage long-term reconstruction efforts over a 4-year period. (Govt. PNG, 1 Mar 2018)
Aerial assessments have shown significant damage and large landslides, and it is estimated that up to 465,000 people may have been affected by the disaster. An estimated 247,000 people are likely to require immediate assistance. Water is reported to be scarce in affected areas due to damage to storage facilities and water sources. One of the main health facilities in the affected area, Mendi hospital, is reportedly experiencing disruption to both water and power supplies. (OCHA, 5 Mar 2018)
A strong aftershock with a magnitude of 6.7 M at a depth of 10 km occurred in the Western province on 6 March at 14.13 UTC, approximately 30 km south-east of the major 7.5 M earthquake of 25 February. According to media, as of 7 March at 8.00 UTC, at least 18 people have been killed by the 6.7 M earthquake. (ECHO, 7 Mar 2018).
The Government, private companies and humanitarian partners have focused initial relief efforts on communities in the worst-hit seven LLGs in Hela and Southern Highlands provinces. Private companies and bilateral partners, including Australia, Japan and New Zealand, play a critical role in the early phase of the response. They work closely with UN agencies, NGOs, CSO, FBOs and the Red Cross. Humanitarian partners have provided food to over 34,400 people in Nipa Kutubu LLG and Komo Magarima LLG. Up to 54,260 households are estimated to be in need of emergency shelter. To date, 100 households in Mount Bosavi LLG and another 100 households in Para/Moro have received shelter equipment. (PNG Disaster Management Team, 11 Mar 2018).
On 27 March 2018, the Parliament passed two bills formalizing the State of Emergency in earthquake-affected areas and establishing a Restoration Authority for the affected provinces. The first bill formalised the State of Emergency initially declared by Prime Minister on 2 March 2018, while the second establishes the WESH Restoration Authority, covering Western, Enga, Southern Highlands, and Hela, as well as parts of West Sepik and Gulf provinces...On 28 March, the Disaster Management Team (DMT) issued its initial earthquake response plan, which focuses on providing life-saving assistance and helping to re-establish basic services for 270,000 people in need of immediate assistance due to the 26 February 2018 earthquake and subsequent aftershocks and landslides...It calls for US$ 62 million to support urgent action in seven areas, including Food Security; Health and Nutrition; Water, Sanitation and Hygiene; Shelter; Protection; Education; and Logistics Coordination. (PNG Disaster Management Team, 29 Mar 2018)
Humanitarian operations in and around Tari, provincial capital of Hela province, have been suspended due to the rise in tension and outbreak of inter-communal fighting since 28 March. US$ 43 million has been mobilized from the private sector for earthquake response and recovery, primarily as contributions to government efforts. (PNG Disaster Management Team, 5 Apr 2018)
Above normal rainfall has been experienced in Mashonaland Central province of Botswana since 23 February 2018. The current rainy season, which started in February, is expected to continue until the end of March 2018. The drastic weather change has resulted in torrential rains that have already affected the district causing displacement, damage to property and a risk of an outbreak of water borne and vector related disease. According to the Department of Meteorology Services, rainfall amounts range between 120-192mm, with a report of dams over spilling causing floods in the neighbouring villages of the Tutume sub district. They also report that the water levels will increase as the rainfall continues until the end of March. (IFRC, 22 Mar 2018)
On 23 February 2018, the Uganda Ministry of Health notified WHO of an outbreak of cholera in Kyangwali refugee settlement, located in Hoima district in the western part of the country. The outbreak started on 15 February 2018...As of 23 February 2018, a total of 700 suspected cholera cases, including 27 deaths (case fatality rate 3.9%) were reported. The affected population are mostly newly arrived refugees and a few members of the host community. The most affected places are a landing site at the shores of Lake Albert and new refugee settlements in the neighbourhood. (WHO, 23 Feb 2018)
Since the beginning of the outbreak on 15 February 2018, a total of 1,151 cases, including 31 deaths (case fatality rate 2.7%), have been reported as of 27 February 2018. The majority of the affected people are refugees from [DRC] and 67% of cases are aged 5 years and above...The cholera outbreak in the refugee settlements in Hoima District continues, with two additional sub-counties being affected. Transmission is still mainly localized in the new refugee settlements and fishing villages along Lake Albert. The outbreak is being amplified by inadequate access to safe water supplies, poor sanitation and limited handwashing facilities in the communities. (WHO, 2 Mar 2018)
On 19 March 2018, twenty (20) new patients were admitted to the Cholera Treatment Centers (CTCs), most of whom (77%) were new arrivals from [DRC]. As of that date, the cumulative number of cases reported was 1,747 with 36 deaths (CFR 2.06%). No deaths were recorded in all CTCs or in the isolation units. The cases are from Kyangwali, Kabwoya and Buseruka sub-counties. There are no cases in Hoima municipality. (WHO, 22 Mar 2018)
Since the beginning of the outbreak, as of 9 April 2018, a cumulative total of 2,091 suspected cholera cases with 44 deaths (case fatality rate 2.1%) were reported across four sub-counties, namely Kyangwali, Kabwoya, Buseruka, Bugambe and Kahoora division. Most of the cases are newly arrived refugees from the province of Ituri in [DRC]. (WHO, 13 Apr 2018.)
On 13 February 2018, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared the ongoing outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus in the country a national public health emergency. A total of 21 children presenting with typical acute accid paralysis (AFP) tested positive for vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cPVDV2) at the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB) in Kinshasa and the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD), South Africa. The outbreak has been ongoing since February 2017 and the date of onset of paralysis in the last case was 3 December 2017. Three provinces have been affected, namely Haut-Lomami (8 cases), Maniema (2 cases) and Tanganyika (11 cases). The confirmed cases are distributed across seven health zones in the three provinces Haut-Lomami [Mukanga (3 cases), Butumba (2 cases), Lwamba (2 cases) and Malemba Nkulu (1 case)], Maniema Province [Kunda (2 cases)] and Tanganyika Province [Ankoro (7 cases) and Manono (4 cases). The [DRC] has not reported wild poliovirus in the last seven years. The country reported the last case of wild polio virus on 20 December 2011, when a single case was confirmed in the Lusangl Health Zone in Maniema Province. (WHO, 16 Feb 2018)
The anti-polio campaigns, scheduled for 26-28 April and 10 -12 May 2018, are targeting 1,531,321 children aged 0 to 59 months in 34 health zones of 4 provinces [-] Haut-Katanga, Lomami, Haut-Lomami and Tanganyika provinces, and the DRC RC intends to contribute in 3 of the 4 provinces, namely Haut-Lomami, Lomami and Tanganyika provinces. (IFRC, 23 Apr 2018)
Tropical Cyclone Gita passed by Samoa on 10 February 2018 and Niue on 11 February 2018, with damages reported in Samoa, including localized flooding. According to the Fiji Meteorological Service, Tropical Cyclone Gita is forecast to arrive in Tonga on...12 February...in the evening. It is forecast to enter Fijian territory passing the Southern Lau Group on...13 February... (OCHA, 11 Feb 2018)
A State of Emergency was declared by the Government of Tonga at 10 am on...12 February for initially one month. In Fiji, a cyclone alert has been issued for the Southern Lau Island Group, Kadavu and smaller islands...where the cyclone is expected to be passing through these waters on...13...February. This will continue as Tropical Cyclone Category 4 as it approaches further South-West from Fiji. Whilst in Samoa, the Government of Samoa stated a Declaration of Disaster for 48 hours starting on 10 February. TC Gita caused extensive flooding in low lying, coastal and river areas around Savai’I and Upolu. There were damages on vegetation and power was also disrupted. There was widespread flooding especially in the Vaisigano catchment area. (IFRC, 12 Feb 2018)
[TC] Gita continued moving south-southwest away from Fiji and Tonga. On 15 February at 0.00 UTC, it was located 460 km south-east of Aneityum island (Vanuatu) and had maximum sustained winds of 194 km/h...According to media, as of 15 February at 7.00 UTC, in Tonga one person died, 33 people were injured, 4 500 people were moved into 108 evacuation centres and over 2 700 houses were damaged in the two worst affected islands of Tongatapu and 'Eua (Tonga). In Fiji, media reported no casualties or injuries. The population of Ono-i-Lau (around 470 people) was evacuated into several evacuation centres inside the island. (ECHO, 15 Feb 2018)
[TC] Gita continued moving south-southwest away from Fiji and Tonga. On 16 February at 0.00 UTC, it was located 230 km south-east of Mare island (New Caledonia) and had maximum sustained winds of 176 km/h. Gita is forecast to weaken and pass approximately 100-150 km south of the islands of Koutoumo and Pins (New Caledonia) on 16 February morning UTC. (ECHO, 16 Feb 2018)
Pacific Humanitarian Team professionals are supporting Government and partners in responding to the immediate health, shelter and water and sanitation needs of affected communities in Tonga. Essential supplies are being sent to support children to return to school and dignity kits for displaced persons. Assistance to support early recovery and education response is now being deployed (UN RC, 19 Feb 2018).
Th[e] draft Immediate Response Plan aims to facilitate coordination of the humanitarian response and early recovery by cluster and identifying requirements for response. The scope and emphasis of the Plan is on immediate humanitarian needs of the affected population over the emergency period ending on the 12...March 2018... The immediate response requirements during the emergency period and up to three months thereafter are estimated at TOP$65.3 million. (Govt. Tonga, 23 Feb 2018)
As of 23 February, 205 families are still in evacuation centers...The number of evacuation centres has decreased from 96 at the height of the disaster to 46, with 41 in Tongatapu and five in Eua. (OCHA, 26 Feb 2018)
As of 1 March, the number of active evacuation centers on Tongatapu and ‘Eua has significantly declined to five. Of these, two evacuation centers on Tongatapu are housing 4 families, and three evacuation centers on ‘Eua housing 11 families. (Govt. Tonga, 1 Mar 2018)
The TC Gita response was led during the emergency phase by National Emergency Management Office (NEMO). During this phase, relief agencies distributed c. 6,500 tarpaulins and 1,288 tool kits. This means that most households have received tarpaulins and tools are accessible to one in every four families with damaged houses. The emergency shelter phase has been quick and comprehensive and provides a strong basis for early recovery. The Ministry of Infrastructure, taking over from NEMO, is now responsible for recovery coordination (Govt. Tonga, Shelter Cluster, 8 Mar 2018).
Government-led assessment teams have been deployed to assess the extent of damage to essential services, power and electricity, agricultural crops and school buildings, where damage was thought to be most severe in Tongatapu and ‘Eua. Latest figures released by NEMO indicates 1,991 houses have been damaged and destroyed in Tongatapu, and 257 in ‘Eua, for a total of 2,248 houses damaged or destroyed. Assessments numbers are still being tallied and analyzed with an expected rise to approximately 20 per cent of houses across the affected areas, where up to 2,800 houses could be damaged or destroyed. Approximately 4,500 people sought refuge in evacuations centres. To date, all evacuees who were sheltered in about 108 evacuations centres in Tongatapu have returned to their usual place of residence. (IFRC, 31 Mar 2018)
In 2017, a prolonged period of severe dry weather between mid-May and end of July, intensified by extreme high temperatures in June, damaged large swatches of cropped areas and caused a severe deterioration of pastures and rangeland conditions. An estimated 80 percent of the country was affected by drought conditions. This resulted in severe yield and area losses of the 2017 crops...The 2017 wheat production is estimated at about 231 000 tonnes, almost half of last year’s high level and over 40 percent less than the five-year average...Drought also caused a severe deterioration of pasture conditions, which prevented livestock to gain fat stores and strengthen core muscle strength, critical to overcome the normally harsh winter/spring months. According to MoFALI data, as of November 2017, overall livestock body condition is 14 percent below average... Harsh winters following summer droughts significantly increase risks for herders to lose their animals. (FAO/WFP, 22 Dec 2017).
As of 20 December 2017, the dzud risk map for winter 2017-2018, published by National Agency of Meteorology and the Environmental Monitoring shows that about 40 percent of the country is at the extreme risk of dzud and about 20 percent of the country is at high risk of dzud. In order to reflect the evolving needs of affected population, to address the recommendation from the final evaluation of previous emergency appeal operation and with the additional funding from donors, MRCS and IFRC revised the operational plan and extended the timeframe. In addition to relief activities, the operation is now supporting Dzud preparedness and National society capacity building by taking account of close consultation with the affected population and relevant authorities. (IFRC, 24 Jan 2018).
On 15 February 2018, IFRC released US$ 277,000 from its Disaster Relief Emergency Fund to assist 2,500 herder families facing very severe winter conditions in seven provinces with cash grants or emergency supplies. The emergency helpwill target the hardest-hit households, those with young children, or five or more children, an older person, or someone with a disability. A national total of 141 out of 330 soums and a city are in “dzud condition”; temperatures approaching minus 50 Celsius were expected to continue through February. (Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Change, 15 Feb 2018)
Heavy rains began pouring in Kinshasa province during the night of 3 to 4 January 2018 and continued until 7 January. The water levels of the 5 Rivers2 that cross Kinshasa province rose abnormally and the waters flew out of the river beds, causing flooding, landslide and silting in nine (9) communes of Kinshasa, namely Galiema, Bandalungwa, Selembao, Masina, Limete, Kalamu, Bumbu, Kimbaseke and Ndjili. The disaster caused the destruction of 465 houses, left 17 people injured, and claimed 51 human lives. In total, 15 743 people (2,624 households) were affected by the disaster in many ways.(IFRC, 19 Jan 2018)
During the morning of the 20th of January, intense rain resulted in an accumulated rainfall of 290 mm in Presidencia Roque Sáenz Peña (Taking in consideration that the wettest month is January with an average of 100mm of rain), causing flooding that isolated zones across the city as well as cutting the electricity supply and causing the collapse of the sewerage system. Some homes and public buildings were flooded by between 10 cm and 150 cm of water. Presidencia Roque Sáenz Peña, which is part of the Chaco Province, is located 170 km from Resistencia (provincial capital) and 1,100 km from Buenos Aires. The affected neighbourhoods are: Santa Mónica, Tiro Federal, Ginés Benítez, Monseñor de Carlo, Santa Elena, Hipólito Yrigoyen, Sáenz Peña, Milenium, San José, Piñeiro, Nala, Pablo VI and Quinta Ocho...At the time of writing the present report, 1,134 people were sheltered in three evacuation centres, of which two have problems with access to water that is fit for human consumption and difficulties with solid waste management in bathrooms.
Due to this situation, some people are suffering from illnesses such as gastro- intestinal pain and skin rashes. People who are sheltered in some of these centres do not have access to sanitary services, and there are some temporary difficulties in accessing food due to challenges in accessing the region. (IFRC, 2 Feb 2018)
The water overflowed a ring of defenses 600 kilometers from the city of Formosa. In as much, in Salta the river continues in low, although there is alert by rains in the high river basin.
Some 2,500 people from 630 families of indigenous peoples who live in the west of the province of Formosa began to be evacuated this morning by the flood of the Pilcomayo, which exceeded the defenses, while in Salta the river is still low, although there is warning of rain in the upper basin. (Gov't of Argentina, 16 Feb 2018)
Since the first week of January 2018, Mauritius has been experiencing heavy rainfall over the island (over 2,000mm) within one week. On Saturday 13 January 2018, a cyclone warning Class 1 was issued for the Rodrigues due to the presence of a tropical disturbance near the island. The tropical disturbance was centred 230km north-east of Rodrigues moving west-southwest direction at about 15km per hour and was expected to increase in intensity with winds exceeding 110km per hour. On 14 January, the cyclone warning was upgraded to Class 3 for Rodrigues island which based on the trajectory of the cyclone, was going to be most affected. The winds were moving at a speed of 50km per hour with gusts of up to 120km per hour.
On Monday 15 January 2018, a cyclone warning class I was issued for Mauritius and on Tuesday 16 January 2018 a cyclone warning class II was issued as the Cyclone intensified and continued to move in a general west south westerly track at about 10 km/hr. Active bands passed over the island on the night of Wednesday 17 January 2018 as active cloud bands continued to affect the island.
The cyclone was projected to make landfall at 12:00 hours on Thursday January 19, 2018. However, the cyclone was downgraded to a tropical storm projected to make landfall as a category 1 tropical storm. On 19 January, Tropical Cyclone BERGUITTA, continued its south westerly direction and passed at about 70 Km from the south of Mauritius. BERGUITTA reduced its intensity and finally passed near Mauritius as a Severe Tropical Storm. (IFRC, 24 Jan 2018)
On the evening of 14 January, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHILVOLCS) raised Mayon Volcano’s alert level from II to III, signifying that Mayon has increased tendency towards hazardous eruption. On the morning of 15 January 2018, two lava collapse events occurred in the volcano, producing rockfall and small-volume pyroclastic density currents. Ash clouds were also produced with ashfalls reported in 29 villages (barangays) in the municipalities of Camalig and Guinobatan in the southwest of the volcano. Furthermore, on 16 January, lava flow and more rockfall events and short pyroclastic flows were also observed. PHILVOLCS recommended that the 6-km permanent danger zone and a 7-km extended danger zone be enforced due to the danger of rockfalls, landslides and sudden explosions or dome collapse that may generate hazardous volcanic flows. As a result of the heightened alert level, precautionary evacuations have been conducted in 25 villages (barangays) in 3 municipalities and 2 cities. As of 15 January, a total of 5,318 families (21,823 people) have been displaced, with 4,134 families (16,877) staying in 18 evacuation centres. (IFRC, 16 Jan 2018)
On 22 Jan 2018, alert level-4 (hazardous eruption imminent) was raised over Mayon Volcano located in Albay province. The danger zone was extended to an 8 km radius, up from a previous 7 km where local authorities were advised to prevent any human activity due to the danger of rockfalls, landslides and sudden explosions or dome collapse that may generate hazardous volcanic flows. As of 22 January, 7,900 families (30,000 people) have evacuated from seven Albay municipalities neighbouring Mount Mayon. (OCHA, 22 Jan 2018)
On 24 Jan 2018, the danger zone has been further extended to a 9 km radius. Around 60,500 people have been displaced and are sheltered in 52 evacuation centres or are being hosted by relatives and friends. (OCHA, 24 Jan 2018)
As of 29 January, nearly 90,000 people have been evacuated from their homes due to ongoing eruptions at Mount Mayon. The majority of displaced people are staying in 74 evacuation centres. Lack of drinking water, sanitation facilities, and hygiene and dignity kits have been noted in areas where evacuees are staying. (OCHA, 29 Jan 2018)
As of January 30, Alert level-4 (hazardous eruption imminent) remains in effect over Mayon Volcano. The volcano is showing high levels of continuing unrest, with lava fountains and frequent ash explosions occurring several times a day, according to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) (OCHA, 30 Jan 2018).
According to the Department of Social Welfare and Development, 90,183 persons have been affected by the eruption, with 72,872 taking temporary shelter in 76 evacuation centers (Govt. of Philippines, 30 Jan 2018)
Mayon Volcano remains on Level 4 alert. As of 5 February, 86,000 people are affected, with 65,000 people staying in 59 evacuation centres. A total of 57 schools and 91,300 students within the 6-9-kilometer danger zones are affected. (OCHA, 05 Feb 2018).
As of 10 February, 88,500 people from 61 barangays have been displaced due to the Mayon Volcano, with most people staying in emergency centres. The Mayon seismic monitoring network recorded 108 volcanic related earthquakes as of 11 February that resulted in lava fountains. The Department of Agriculture has provided farm supplies and materials to 10,500 affected farmers. Medical missions and psychosocial activities, as well as food and non-food items, are being delivered at the emergency centres for displaced people. (OCHA, 12 Feb 2018).
As of 19 February 2018, a Level 4 alert remains raised over Mayon Volcano. Up to 90,000 people in six municipalities and two cities of Albay province are affected, with 62,000 people currently in 57 evacuation centres. The health department has deployed a team from the regional and provincial health offices to reassess the health conditions in evacuation centers, while NGOs are conducting psychosocial activities for children living inside evacuation centers. (OCHA, 19 Feb 2018).
As of 26 February, the number of people affected by the eruption of Mount Mayon has risen to over 90,000. A level 4 alert remains in effect over the volcano. On 26 February, 36 separate lava eruptions lasting up to 19 minutes occurred. 62,000 people have been evacuated from their homes due to the volcano and are staying in 57 evacuation centres. To date, approximately USD$8.6m has been provided in assistance. The social welfare and development office has distributed 3,000 food packs and tents for temporary shelter. (OCHA, 26 Feb 2018).
As of 28 February, more than 90,000 people remain affected as a Level 4 alert continues to be raised over Mayon volcano. Almost 62,000 are staying in 57 evacuation centres. The national and regional line agencies, and local government units have provided US$8.6m worth of assistance, including the distribution of food packs and tents by the social welfare and development office. Providing education to children displaced by the volcano and supporting the livelihoods of farmers with land in the six to nine-kilometer permanent danger zone, remain key priorities. (OCHA, 5 Mar 2018).
On 6 March 2018, the alert level of the volcano has been downgraded to Level 3 due to declining in unrest reflected by moderate seismicity and degassing, deflation of the edifice, and a decrease in eruptive activity at the summit crater. As of 8 March 2018, over 49,000 people are still taking shelter in 48 evacuation centers. (Govt. of Philippines, 8 Mar 2018)
54,000 evacuees have returned home after the alert for the Mayon volcano was reduced to level 3. However, volcanic-related activity is ongoing including earthquakes, sporadic degassing and lava effusion events. The downgrading of the alert to level 3 will allow many people staying in the 61 evacuation centres to return home. However, approximately 11,000 people will have to remain in the centres and will not be able to leave until the alert is reduced further to a level 2. (OCHA, 12 Mar 2018).
As of 25 March, alert level remains at level 3 with 6 km radius of Permanent Dangers Zone. A total of 1,300 families / 5,016 persons are currently in 9 evacuation centers; while 330 families / 1,412 persons are staying with families/friends (AHA Centre, 25 Mar 2018). On 3 April, the government lowered its Alert Level to Level 2, and reported the return of all Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) to their respective places of origin (Gov't of Philippines, 3 Apr 2018).
At the start of 2018, temperatures are below seasonal norms in various parts of the world. In Morocco, starting from 5 January, temperatures are generally below normal. Heavy snowfall has affected the High Atlas and the Middle Atlas, from 900 meters above sea level, with temperatures as low as minus 5 ° C, where the average tempratures in January (the coldest of the 3 winter months) hovers around 18 degrees Celsius. This average includes a low of 7 degrees and a high of 23 degrees.
In the interior of the country, several roads have been cut due to snow, according to the Ministry of Transport. With its terrain mountains accustomed to very harsh winters, this area is the most affected by the cold wave that has raged between 5 and 9 January, 2018.
The cold also affects, to a lesser extent, the Atlantic coast. In Rabat, a hailstorm hit the city. An impressive amount of seaweed has been observed off the administrative capital. The heavy rains are greeted with some relief by farmers who were worried about the risk of drought. People find themselves isolated, the roads are cut, and farmers can no longer feed livestock at the foot of the Middle Atlas. (IFRC, 24 Jan 2017)
As of 8 February,All public authorities are mobilized to open up regions hit by heavy snowfall via the implementation of an intervention plan to weather the impact of the cold wave and snowfall, said on Thursday head of government Saâd Eddine El Othmani, noting that this plan involves 22 provinces, including 1205 villages under 169 communes, totalling a population of 514,000 inhabitants. (Gov't Morocco, 8 Feb 2017)
The remote Kadovar Island volcano became active on 5 January 2018 with mild volcanic activity on the south-eastern side of the island. The aerial assessment estimated 50-60 percent of the island covered in lava. The entire population (591 people) has been relocated to Brup Brup island. Rabaul Volcanological Observatory (RVO) has assessed that there is a possibility for Kadovar to explode which could trigger similar explosions on near by volcanic islands of Brup Brup and Biem. This may also trigger a tsunami due to landslides. (IFRC, 9 Jan 2018)
As of 15 January 2018, there is an immediate need for food, water, shelter and clothing due to the evacuation of entire population of Kadovar Island to Brup Brup Island (population 1,400). The Prime Minister’s Office is supporting the provincial government to provide 2,000 people with food and water. Meanwhile, the Provincial Government is planning to evacuate the entire population of Kadovar, Brup Brup and Biem islands (up to 4,000 people) to a site on mainland East Sepik due to risk of tsunami, and the potential for a further eruption on neighbouring Biem Island. (OCHA, 15 Jan 2018)
According to the Provincial Governor, the Government is planning to resettle Kadovar islanders on the mainland for up to three years, and will provide support to those who are displaced. The National Capital District Commission has donated Kina100,000 (US$31,000) to the ongoing relief efforts while several private sector companies have provided in-kind contributions including flour, rice and sugar. (OCHA, 22 Jan 2018)
As of 26 January, the Rabaul Volcanological Observatory (RVO) has indicated that the situation on Kadovar remained dynamic but has settled into a reasonable stable situation. There remained a small risk of tsunami to the mainland and neighbouring islands should the volcanic structure collapses. The National Disaster Centre has developed a PGK4 million response plan ($1.21 million) to meet the assessed needs of Kadovar islanders at Dandan Care Centre for up to six months. (OCHA, 27 Jan 2018)
As of 20 March, there are a total of 557 affected population from the villages of Manot, Taragauo, Dong Sarakbano, Niukatnam and Rumgio staying at the Dan Dan care centre. It is anticipated that the affected population will remain at the care centre for the next three to six months before being resettled at a larger permanent site. This requires the Provincial Government to finalise details with the host community that is providing land and ensure that payment is made to the community for the land before the population of Kadovar will be able to resettle permanently. (IFRC, 20 Mar 2018)
Madagascar is on alert following the identification of a low weather pressure system off the north-east coast of the country, which is expected to strengthen in the southwestern Indian Ocean basin. The weather system is already causing weather disturbances in northern Madagascar and on the islands of Réunion and Mauritius. It is expected to gain strength during the week as it tracks westward, prior to making landfall on Madagascar on 4 or 5 January 2018 (OCHA, 3 Jan 2018)
Tropical Cyclone AVA reached Madagascar’s northeast coast in the afternoon of 5 January. Heavy rains associated with AVA have been recorded in the north, north-east and east of the country since 3 January. Rising water levels have been observed in the Alaotra Mangoro and Analanjirofo regions, while flooding, interruptions to communications networks and power cuts have been reported in Fokontany Ambinany (Soanierana Ivongo). Preventive evacuations began in Brickaville on 4 January. The Malagasy authorities have issued a red alert (imminent threat) for the regions of Analanjirofo, Atsinanana and Alaotra Mangoro for 4 to 5 January, and Vatovavy Fitovinany for 5 to 6 January. In addition, several districts remain on yellow and green alert.(OCHA, 5 Jan 2018)
Tropical cyclone AVA continued moving south along the eastern coast of the country as Tropical Storm. On 8 January at 0.00 UTC its centre was located off the eastern coast of Madagascar, 200 km north-east of Taolagnaro city (Madagascar) and 800 km south-west of La Reunion island, and it had maximum sustained winds speed of 74 km/h (Tropical Storm). Over the next 24 hours, it is forecast to keep moving, heading south away from Madagascar and weakening. Heavy rain, strong winds and a storm surge could still affect southern and eastern regions of Madagascar. (ECHO, 8 Jan 2018)
According to the Malagasy authorities, as of 9 January, about 123,000 people had been directly or indirectly impacted by Tropical Cyclone Ava, with 24,800 people evacuated, 33 dead and 22 missing.
The cyclone damaged 19 health centres and affected 141 schools, including 77 classrooms used as shelter for displaced people. About 34,640 children are out of school.
Road access to some south-eastern and southwestern parts of the country has been cut off. River levels have started to moderately decrease in Antananarivo and in the south-eastern coast.
However, evacuated people are still staying in several temporary sites. Remaining displaced people are mainly in Antananarivo and in the south-eastern coast; while almost all displaced people in Brickaville and Toamasina have already returned to their homes. It is common that the number of displaced people reduces in the days following a cyclone, as people return home if there are no floods or landslide threat. (OCHA, 8 Jan 2018)